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Koivula M.-K.,University of Oulu | Turpeinen U.,Laboratory of Womens Clinic | Laitinen P.,University of Oulu | Risteli J.,University of Oulu
Clinical Laboratory | Year: 2012

Background: Comparing two fully automated 25-OH-D immunoassays with a validated liquid chromatography isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-IDMS/MS) method in human serum samples. Methods: 180 samples were analyzed with the Liaison® TOTAL Vitamin D, the IDS-iSYS 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D, and a validated LC-IDMS/MS 25-OH D method. Results: The Liaison® method mean ± standard deviation (SD) was 64.3 ± 23.5 nmol/L; the IDS-iSYS 70.1 ± 27.0 nmol/L, and the LC-IDMS/MS 68.9 ± 24.6 nmol/L. The correlation coefficient (r) between the Liaison® and LC-IDMS/MS was 0.723, and the r between the IDS-iSYS and LC-IDMS/MS was 0.799. When the samples were grouped by females and males, the r between the Liaison® and LC-IDMS/MS was 0.680 and 0.846, being 0.781 and 0.863 between the IDS-iSYS and LC-IDMS/MS, respectively. With the Passing-Bablok analysis, only the IDS-iSYS gave equivalent results to LC-IDMS/MS. Conclusions: The automated 25-OH-D immunoassays were in clinically good overall agreement with the LC-IDMS/MS method.


Makkonen I.,Kuopio University Hospital | Kokki H.,Kuopio University Hospital | Kuikka J.,Kuopio University Hospital | Turpeinen U.,Laboratory of Womens Clinic | Riikonen R.,Kuopio University Hospital
Neuropediatrics | Year: 2011

A positive effect of fluoxetine has been shown in some children with autism. The present study was undertaken to correlate striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) binding and cerebrospinal fluid insulin-like growth factor-1 (CSF-IGF-1) with clinical response in autistic children (n=13, age 516 years) after a 6-month fluoxetine treatment. Good clinical responders (n=6) had a decrease (p=0.031) in DAT binding as assessed using single-photon emission computed tomography with [ 123I]-nor - CIT, whereas poor responders had a trend to an increase. An increase in CSF-IGF-1 (p=0.003) was detected after the treatment period, but no correlation between the clinical response and CSF-IGF-1 was found. In conclusion, fluoxetine decreases DAT binding indicating alleviation of the hyperdopaminergic state and increases CSF-IGF-1 concentration, which may also have a neuroprotective effect against dopamine-induced neurotoxicity in autistic children. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart - New York.


Todorova B.,Kuopio University Hospital | Salonen M.,Kuopio University Hospital | Jaaskelainen J.,Kuopio University Hospital | Tapio A.,University of Eastern Finland | And 7 more authors.
Hormone Research in Paediatrics | Year: 2012

Background: Altered adrenocortical activity is one suggested mechanism relating small birth size with the metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Adrenal androgen concentrations are higher in children born small (SGA) than appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Aim: To compare adrenocortical hormonal activity between 20-year-old subjects born SGA or AGA. Methods: Seventy 20-year-old subjects (35 SGA and 35 age- and gender-matched AGA controls) were studied. Serum cortisol, cortisone, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), glucocorticoid bioactivity (GBA), aldosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and androstenedione were measured, and the free cortisol index (FCI) was calculated. Results: The mean levels of glucocorticoid parameters, aldosterone, DHEAS or androstenedione did not differ between the SGA and AGA groups. In both groups, the males had lower cortisol (p < 0.05) and CBG levels (p < 0.01) and higher DHEAS (p < 0.01) concentrations than the females. Females who used hormonal contraceptives had higher cortisol and CBG levels (p < 0.01) but similar FCI, GBA and DHEAS levels than females who did not use contraceptives. Conclusion: No differences in adrenocortical activity were found between 20-year-old SGA and AGA subjects. Enhanced peripubertal adrenal androgen secretion seems to disappear by early adulthood in full-term born SGA subjects. FCI and GBA are useful parameters in the evaluation of the glucocorticoid milieu during hormonal contraceptive use. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Wang F.,University of Helsinki | Wang F.,Folkhalsan Research Center | Koskela A.,Folkhalsan Research Center | Koskela A.,University of Helsinki | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2011

Dehydroepiandrosterone-fatty acyl esters (DHEA-FAE) are naturally occurring water-insoluble metabolites of DHEA, which are transported in plasma exclusively by lipoproteins. To find out whether DHEA, like estradiol, might be stored in adipose tissue in FAE form, we set up a mass spectrometric method to quantify DHEA-FAE and free DHEA in human adipose tissue and serum. The method consists of chromatographic purification steps and final determination of hydrolyzed DHEA-FAE and free DHEA, which was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Our results showed that no detectable amounts of DHEA-FAE could be found in adipose tissue although 32-178 pmol/g of free DHEA were determined by GC-MS and LC-MS/MS. The DHEA-FAE concentrations in serum quantified by GC-MS were 1.4 ± 0.7 pmol/ml in premenopausal women (n = 7), and 0.9 ± 0.4 pmol/ml in postmenopausal women (n = 5). Correspondingly, the free DHEA concentrations were 15.2 ± 6.3 pmol/ml and 6.8 ± 3.0 pmol/ml. In addition, the mean proportions of DHEA-FAE of total DHEA (DHEA-FAE + free DHEA) in serum were 8.6% and 11.2% in pre- and postmenopausal women, respectively. Serum DHEA-FAE concentration was below quantification limit for LC-MS/MS (signal-to-noise ratio, S/N = 10), while free DHEA concentrations varied between 5.8 and 23.2 pmol/ml. In conclusion, the proportion of DHEA-FAE of total DHEA in serum was approximately 9%. However, in contrast to our previous findings for estradiol fatty acid esters in adipose tissue which constituted about 80% of total estradiol (esterified + free), the proportion of DHEA-FAE of total DHEA was below 5%. Four to ten times higher concentrations of free DHEA were quantified in adipose tissue compared to those in serum. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Turpeinen U.,Laboratory of Womens Clinic | Hamalainen E.,Laboratory of Womens Clinic
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2013

Cortisol is quantitatively the major glucocorticoid product of the adrenal cortex. The main reason to measure cortisol is to diagnose human diseases characterised by deficiency of adrenal steroid excretion in Addison's disease or overproduction in Cushing's syndrome (CS). In both cases a sensitive, accurate and reproducible assay of cortisol is required. Several methods have been described for the quantitative measurement of cortisol in both serum and urine. The most widely used methods in routine clinical laboratories are immunoassays (IA) and enzyme immunoassays (EIA), luminescence and fluorescence assays, which are available in numerous commercial kits and on automated platforms. However, there remains a number of problems in the so-called direct immunoassays if extraction and prepurification are not carried out before the assay. Recently, more specific chromatographic methods have been introduced, such as high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) or liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric assays (LC-MS/MS). The high specificity especially of LC-MS/MS facilitates reliable measurement of cortisol both in plasma, urine and saliva samples. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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