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Yewdell J.W.,Laboratory of Viral Diseases
Molecular Immunology | Year: 2013

The field of antigen processing and presentation has taken tremendous strides since the first international workshop in 1995. While much has been learned, much remains to be discovered. Here I discuss the most recent findings regarding the nature of substrates for the MHC class I antigen processing pathways which provide glimpses of the mist shrouded features remaining to be discovered. © 2012.

Yewdell J.W.,Laboratory of Viral Diseases
Trends in Immunology | Year: 2011

Defective ribosomal products (DRiPs) are a subset of rapidly degraded polypeptides that provide peptide ligands for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. Here, recent progress in understanding DRiP biogenesis is reviewed. These findings place DRiPs at the center of the MHC class I antigen processing pathway, linking immunosurveillance of viruses and tumors to mechanisms of specialized translation and cellular compartmentalization. DRiPs enable the immune system to rapidly detect alterations in cellular gene expression with great sensitivity. © 2011.

Karttunen H.,New York University | Savas J.N.,Scripps Research Institute | McKinney C.,New York University | McKinney C.,Laboratory of Viral Diseases | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Cell | Year: 2014

DNA damage associated with viral DNA synthesis can result in double-strand breaks that threaten genome integrity and must be repaired. Here, we establish that the cellular Fanconi anemia (FA) genomic stability pathway is exploited by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) to promote viral DNA synthesis and enable its productive growth. Potent FA pathway activation in HSV-1-infected cells resulted in monoubiquitination of FA effector proteins FANCI and FANCD2 (FANCI-D2) and required the viral DNA polymerase. FANCD2 relocalized to viral replication compartments, and FANCI-D2 interacted with a multisubunit complex containing the virus-encoded single-stranded DNA-binding protein ICP8. Significantly, whereas HSV-1 productive growth was impaired in monoubiquitination-defective FA cells, this restriction was partially surmounted by antagonizing the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), a critical enzyme required for nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). This identifies the FA-pathway as a cellular factor required for herpesvirus productive growth and suggests that FA-mediated suppression of NHEJ is a fundamental step in the viral life cycle. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Dey B.,Laboratory of Viral Diseases | Lagenaur L.A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Lagenaur L.A.,Osel, Inc. | Lusso P.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Current HIV Research | Year: 2013

Although the development of a protective vaccine remains the most effective strategy for the global control of HIV/AIDS, another practical form of medical intervention would be a microbicide capable of preventing HIV-1 transmission at the mucosal level. A broad spectrum of antiviral molecules have demonstrated in vitro efficacy in proof-of-principle studies, and a selected few have already been tested in pre-clinical and clinical microbicide trials. Nevertheless, major hurdles remain to be overcome and there is still much uncertainty about the choice of inhibitors, formulations and administration vehicles for obtaining a safe and effective microbicide. A special category of HIV-1 microbicides are those based on proteins or peptides that interfere with the earliest steps in the viral infectious cycle. Besides a high degree of target specificity and a limited, if any, systemic absorption, protein-based microbicides offer the unique advantage of being suitable to in vivo expression by engineered bacteria or viral vectors, which might ensure prolonged protection without the need for planned, intercourse-coordinated application. In this respect, vaginal or rectal microbiota such as Lactobacillus spp. represent ideal expression systems as they would not only produce the inhibitor of choice at the mucosal surface, but also easily blend within the resident microflora and offer additional valuable homeostatic effects. In this article, we review the current state of the art on protein-based microbicides. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.

Das S.R.,Laboratory of Viral Diseases | Das S.R.,J. Craig Venter Institute | Das S.R.,Emory University | Hensley S.E.,Laboratory of Viral Diseases | And 9 more authors.
Cell Host and Microbe | Year: 2013

Human influenza A virus (IAV) vaccination is limited by "antigenic drift," rapid antibody-driven escape reflecting amino acid substitutions in the globular domain of hemagglutinin (HA), the viral attachment protein. To better understand drift, we used anti-hemagglutinin monoclonal Abs (mAbs) to sequentially select IAV escape mutants. Twelve selection steps, each resulting in a single amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin globular domain, were required to eliminate antigenicity defined by monoclonal or polyclonal Abs. Sequential mutants grow robustly, showing the structural plasticity of HA, although several hemagglutinin substitutions required an epistatic substitution in the neuraminidase glycoprotein to maximize growth. Selecting escape mutants from parental versus sequential variants with the same mAb revealed distinct escape repertoires, attributed to contextual changes in antigenicity and the mutation landscape. Since each hemagglutinin mutation potentially sculpts future mutation space, drift can follow many stochastic paths, undermining its unpredictability and underscoring the need for drift-insensitive vaccines. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

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