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Mattoscio D.,University of Chieti Pescara | Evangelista V.,Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Pharmacology | Recchiuti A.,University of Chieti Pescara | Pandolfi A.,University of Chieti Pescara | And 14 more authors.
FASEB Journal | Year: 2010

Inflammatory lung disease is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF). Mechanisms of unresolved acute inflammation in CF are not completely known, although the involvement of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in nonrespiratory cells is emerging. Here we examined CFTR expression and function in human platelets (PLTs) and found that they express a biologically active CFTR. CFTR blockade gave an ∼50% reduction in lipoxin A4 (LXA4) formation during PLT/polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) coincubations by inhibiting the lipoxin synthase activity of PLT 12-lipoxygenase. PLTs from CF patients generated ∼40% less LXA4 compared to healthy subject PLTs. CFTR inhibition increased PLT-dependent PMN viability (33.0±5.7 vs. 61.2±8.2%; P=0.033), suppressed nitric oxide generation (0.23±0.04 vs. 0.11±0.002 pmol/108 PLTs; P=0.004), while reducing AKT (1.02±0.12 vs. 0.71±0.007 U; P=0.04), and increasing p38 MAPK phosphorylation (0.650±0.09 vs. 1.04±0.24 U; P=0.03). Taken together, these findings indicate that PLTs from CF patients are affected by the molecular defect of CFTR. Moreover, this CF PLT abnormality may explain the failure of resolution in CF. © FASEB.


Croci D.O.,University of Buenos Aires | Cumashi A.,University of Chieti Pescara | Ushakova N.A.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences | Preobrazhenskaya M.E.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences | And 16 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Sulfated polysaccharides from Laminaria saccharina (new name: Saccharina latissima) brown seaweed show promising activity for the treatment of inflammation, thrombosis, and cancer; yet the molecular mechanisms underlying these properties remain poorly understood. The aim of this work was to characterize, using in vitro and in vivo strategies, the anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, anti-angiogenic, and anti-tumor activities of two main sulfated polysaccharide fractions obtained from L. saccharina: a) L.s.-1.0 fraction mainly consisting of O-sulfated mannoglucuronofucans and b) L.s.-1.25 fraction mainly composed of sulfated fucans. Both fractions inhibited leukocyte recruitment in a model of inflammation in rats, although L.s.-1.25 appeared to be more active than L.s.-1.0. Also, these fractions inhibited neutrophil adhesion to platelets under flow. Only fraction L.s.-1.25, but not L.s.-1.0, displayed anticoagulant activity as measured by the activated partial thromboplastin time. Investigation of these fractions in angiogenesis settings revealed that only L.s.-1.25 strongly inhibited fetal bovine serum (FBS) induced in vitro tubulogenesis. This effect correlated with a reduction in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels in L.s.-1.25-treated endothelial cells. Furthermore, only parent sulfated polysaccharides from L. saccharina (L.s.-P) and its fraction L.s.-1.25 were powerful inhibitors of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induced pathways. Consistently, the L.s.-1.25 fraction as well as L.s.-P successfully interfered with fibroblast binding to human bFGF. The incorporation of L.s.-P or L.s.-1.25, but not L.s.-1.0 into Matrigel plugs containing melanoma cells induced a significant reduction in hemoglobin content as well in the frequency of tumor-associated blood vessels. Moreover, i.p. administrations of L.s.-1.25, as well as L.s.-P, but not L.s.-1.0, resulted in a significant reduction of tumor growth when inoculated into syngeneic mice. Finally, L.s.-1.25 markedly inhibited breast cancer cell adhesion to human platelet-coated surfaces. Thus, sulfated fucans are mainly responsible for the anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, antiangiogenic, and antitumor activities of sulfated polysaccharides from L. saccharina brown seaweed. © 2011 Croci et al.


Totani L.,Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Pharmacology | Amore C.,Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Pharmacology | Di Santo A.,Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Pharmacology | Dell'Elba G.,Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Pharmacology | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis | Year: 2016

Essentials: Thrombosis is a major comorbidity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Roflumilast is a selective phosphodiesterase type-4 (PDE4) inhibitor approved for treatment of severe COPD. PDE4 blockade by roflumilast inhibits prothrombotic functions of neutrophils and monocytes. PDE4 inhibitors may reduce thrombotic risk in COPD as well as in other vascular diseases. Summary: Background: Roflumilast, an oral selective phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor, is approved for the treatment of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A recent meta-analysis of trials on COPD revealed that treatment with roflumilast was associated with a significant reduction in the rate of major cardiovascular events. The mechanisms of this effect remain unknown. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that roflumilast N-oxide (RNO), the active metabolite of roflumilast, curbs the molecular mechanisms required for leukocyte-platelet (PLT) interactions and prevents the prothrombotic functions of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and monocytes (MNs). Methods: Using well-characterized in vitro models, we analysed the effects of RNO on: (i) PMN adhesiveness; (ii) the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs); and (iii) tissue factor expression in MNs. Key biochemical events underlying the inhibitory effects of RNO were defined. Results and Conclusions: In PMNs, RNO prevented phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473, and Src family kinase (SFK)-mediated Pyk2 phosphorylation on Tyr579-580, while inducing protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of C-terminal Src kinase, the major negative regulator of SFKs. Modulation of these signaling pathways by RNO resulted in a significant impairment of PMN adhesion to activated PLTs or human umbilical vein endothelial cells, mainly mediated by inhibition of the adhesive function of Mac-1. Moreover RNO curbed SFK/PI3K-mediated NET release by PMNs adherent on fibrinogen-coated surfaces. In MNs interacting with activated PLTs, RNO curbed PI3K-mediated expression of tissue factor. The efficacy of RNO was significantly potentiated by formoterol, a long acting β-adrenergic receptor agonist. This study reveals novel antithrombotic activities by which roflumilast may exert protective effects against cardiovascular comorbodities in COPD. Copyright © 2016 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.


PubMed | Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Pharmacology and Takeda Pharmaceuticals International GmbH
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH | Year: 2016

ESSENTIALS: Thrombosis is a major comorbidity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Roflumilast is a selective phosphodiesterase type-4 (PDE4) inhibitor approved for treatment of severe COPD. PDE4 blockade by roflumilast inhibits prothrombotic functions of neutrophils and monocytes. PDE4 inhibitors may reduce thrombotic risk in COPD as well as in other vascular diseases.Roflumilast, an oral selective phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor, is approved for the treatment of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A recent meta-analysis of trials on COPD revealed that treatment with roflumilast was associated with a significant reduction in the rate of major cardiovascular events. The mechanisms of this effect remain unknown.We tested the hypothesis that roflumilast N-oxide (RNO), the active metabolite of roflumilast, curbs the molecular mechanisms required for leukocyte-platelet (PLT) interactions and prevents the prothrombotic functions of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and monocytes (MNs).Using well-characterized in vitro models, we analysed the effects of RNO on: (i) PMN adhesiveness; (ii) the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs); and (iii) tissue factor expression in MNs. Key biochemical events underlying the inhibitory effects of RNO were defined.In PMNs, RNO prevented phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473, and Src family kinase (SFK)-mediated Pyk2 phosphorylation on Tyr579-580, while inducing protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of C-terminal Src kinase, the major negative regulator of SFKs. Modulation of these signaling pathways by RNO resulted in a significant impairment of PMN adhesion to activated PLTs or human umbilical vein endothelial cells, mainly mediated by inhibition of the adhesive function of Mac-1. Moreover RNO curbed SFK/PI3K-mediated NET release by PMNs adherent on fibrinogen-coated surfaces. In MNs interacting with activated PLTs, RNO curbed PI3K-mediated expression of tissue factor. The efficacy of RNO was significantly potentiated by formoterol, a long acting -adrenergic receptor agonist. This study reveals novel antithrombotic activities by which roflumilast may exert protective effects against cardiovascular comorbodities in COPD.


Totani L.,Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Pharmacology | Dell'Elba G.,Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Pharmacology | Martelli N.,Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Pharmacology | di Santo A.,Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Pharmacology | And 3 more authors.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis | Year: 2012

Prasugrel, through its active metabolite, reduces atherothrombosis and its clinical manifestations by inhibiting platelet activation and aggregation. Platelets also contribute to inflammation through interacttion with different classes of leukocytes. We investigated whether the inhibitory effect of prasugrel on platelets also counteract inflammatory responses. The effect of prasugrel active metabolite, R-138727, was investigated on platelet P-selectin expression, platelet adhesion to poly-morphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and monocytes (MN) and Mac-1 expression in PMN and MN, in vitro, in human cells. The ex vivo effect of prasugrel administration on P-selectin, thromboxane (TXB)2 formation, platelet-PMN conjugates and Mac-1 expression in PMN triggered by PAR-4 agonist peptide was examined in whole blood from healthy mice as well as from mice in which an acute inflammatory reaction was induced by treatment with endotoxin. The effect of prasugrel on inflammatory markers in endotoxin-treated animals was also tested in vivo. R-138727 inhibited agonist-stimulated expression of platelet P-selec-tin, platelet-PMN and platelet-MN adhesion and platelet-dependent Mac-1 expression in leukocytes. Addition of aspirin did not modify the inhibitory effect elicited by R-138727. Treatment of mice with prasugrel resulted in a profound inhibition of platelet P-selectin expression, TXB2 production, platelet-PMN adhesion and Mac-1 expression in PMN induced by ex vivo stimulation with PAR-4 agonist peptide of whole blood from healthy or endotoxin-treated mice. Measurement of markers revealed that prasugrel reduced TXB2 and tumour necrosis factor-α synthesis and increased nitric oxide metabolites in endotoxin-treated mice in vivo. In conclusion, prasugrel reduces platelet interactions with PMN and MN. Through these effects prasugrel may curb platelet-mediated inflammatory responses. © Schattauer 2012.


Totani L.,Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Pharmacology | Evangelista V.,Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Pharmacology
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology | Year: 2010

Platelet-leukocyte interactions define a basic cell process that is characterized by the exchange of signals between platelets and different types of leukocytes and that bridges 2 fundamental pathophysiological events: atherothrombosis and inflammatory immune reactions. When this process takes place at the site of atherosclerotic plaque development or at the site of endothelial injury, platelet-dependent leukocyte recruitment and activation contributes to the inflammatory reaction of the vessel wall, which accounts for the exacerbation of atherosclerosis and for intimal hyperplasia and plaque instability. Moreover, platelet-leukocyte interactions may have a key role in modulating a wide array of responses of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, thus contributing to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases and tissue damage, as well as to host defense. © 2010 American Heart Association. All rights reserved.


Di Santo A.,Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Pharmacology | Amore C.,Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Pharmacology | Dell'Elba G.,Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Pharmacology | Manarini S.,Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Pharmacology | Evangelista V.,Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Pharmacology
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis | Year: 2011

Background:At the site of vascular injury, monocytes (MN) interacting with activated platelets (PLT) synthesize tissue factor (TF) and promote thrombus formation. Intracellular signals necessary for the expression of TF in MN, in the context of a developing thrombus, remain unknown. Objective:The study was designed to investigate the role of the glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3, a serine-threonine kinase) downstream insulin receptor pathway, in PLT-induced TF expression in MN. Methods: To this purpose we used a well-characterized in vitro model of human MN-PLT interactions that allows detailed analysis of TF activity, TF protein and gene expression.Results:The results demonstrated that, in MN interacting with activated PLT: (i) TF activity, antigen and mRNA were low until 8-10h and dramatically increased thereafter, up to 24h; (ii) according to the kinetics of TF expression in MN, GSK3β undergoes phosphorylation on serine 9, a process associated with down-regulation of enzyme activity; (iii) pharmacological blockade of GSK3 further increased TF expression and was accompanied by increased accumulation of NF-kB, in the nucleus; (iv) blockade of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI(3)K) by wortmannin inhibited PLT-induced TF expression; and (v) according to the established role of the GSK3 downstream insulin receptor, insulin increased PLT-induced TF expression in a PI(3)K-dependent manner. Conclusion:GSK3 acts as a molecular brake on the signaling pathway, leading to TF expression in MN interacting with activated PLT. PI(3)K, through Akt-dependent phosphorylation of GSK3, relieves this brake and allows TF gene expression. This study identifies a novel molecular link between thrombotic risk and metabolic disorders. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.


PubMed | Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Pharmacology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH | Year: 2011

At the site of vascular injury, monocytes (MN) interacting with activated platelets (PLT) synthesize tissue factor (TF) and promote thrombus formation. Intracellular signals necessary for the expression of TF in MN, in the context of a developing thrombus, remain unknown.The study was designed to investigate the role of the glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3, a serine-threonine kinase) downstream insulin receptor pathway, in PLT-induced TF expression in MN.To this purpose we used a well-characterized in vitro model of human MN-PLT interactions that allows detailed analysis of TF activity, TF protein and gene expression.The results demonstrated that, in MN interacting with activated PLT: (i) TF activity, antigen and mRNA were low until 8-10 h and dramatically increased thereafter, up to 24 h; (ii) according to the kinetics of TF expression in MN, GSK3 undergoes phosphorylation on serine 9, a process associated with down-regulation of enzyme activity; (iii) pharmacological blockade of GSK3 further increased TF expression and was accompanied by increased accumulation of NF-kB, in the nucleus; (iv) blockade of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI(3)K) by wortmannin inhibited PLT-induced TF expression; and (v) according to the established role of the GSK3 downstream insulin receptor, insulin increased PLT-induced TF expression in a PI(3)K-dependent manner.GSK3 acts as a molecular brake on the signaling pathway, leading to TF expression in MN interacting with activated PLT. PI(3)K, through Akt-dependent phosphorylation of GSK3, relieves this brake and allows TF gene expression. This study identifies a novel molecular link between thrombotic risk and metabolic disorders.


PubMed | Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Pharmacology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Thrombosis and haemostasis | Year: 2012

Prasugrel, through its active metabolite, reduces atherothrombosis and its clinical manifestations by inhibiting platelet activation and aggregation. Platelets also contribute to inflammation through interaction with different classes of leukocytes. We investigated whether the inhibitory effect of prasugrel on platelets also counteract inflammatory responses. The effect of prasugrel active metabolite, R-138727, was investigated on platelet P-selectin expression, platelet adhesion to polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and monocytes (MN) and Mac-1 expression in PMN and MN, in vitro, in human cells. The ex vivo effect of prasugrel administration on P-selectin, thromboxane (TXB)2 formation, platelet-PMN conjugates and Mac-1 expression in PMN triggered by PAR-4 agonist peptide was examined in whole blood from healthy mice as well as from mice in which an acute inflammatory reaction was induced by treatment with endotoxin. The effect of prasugrel on inflammatory markers in endotoxin-treated animals was also tested in vivo. R-138727 inhibited agonist-stimulated expression of platelet P-selectin, platelet-PMN and platelet-MN adhesion and platelet-dependent Mac-1 expression in leukocytes. Addition of aspirin did not modify the inhibitory effect elicited by R-138727. Treatment of mice with prasugrel resulted in a profound inhibition of platelet P-selectin expression, TXB2 production, platelet-PMN adhesion and Mac-1 expression in PMN induced by ex vivo stimulation with PAR-4 agonist peptide of whole blood from healthy or endotoxin-treated mice. Measurement of markers revealed that prasugrel reduced TXB2 and tumour necrosis factor- synthesis and increased nitric oxide metabolites in endotoxin-treated mice in vivo. In conclusion, prasugrel reduces platelet interactions with PMN and MN. Through these effects prasugrel may curb platelet-mediated inflammatory responses.


Totani L.,Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Pharmacology | Piccoli A.,Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Pharmacology | Dell'Elba G.,Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Pharmacology | Concetta A.,Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Pharmacology | And 6 more authors.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology | Year: 2014

Objective - Platelet-neutrophil interactions play a key role in cardiovascular disease and inflammatory processes. Src family kinases mediate P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1-Mac-1 cross talk necessary for firm platelet-neutrophil adhesion. Because Src family kinase activity can be regulated by cAMP-dependent pathways, in this work, we evaluated the role of phosphodiesterases in the signaling events that are required to sustain platelet-neutrophil interactions and neutrophil recruitment at the site of vascular injury. Approach And Results - In neutrophils exposed to P-selectin, selective phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibition prevented Src family kinase-mediated phosphorylation of the proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 on Tyr579/Tyr580. The effects of PDE4 inhibition required protein kinase A, likely through protein kinase A-mediated activation of COOH-terminal Src kinase, a major negative regulator of Src family kinases. PDE4, but not other phosphodiesterase inhibitors, reduced platelet-neutrophil conjugates as well as neutrophil firm adhesion on spread platelets under flow conditions. The effect of PDE4 inhibition on neutrophil adhesion was primarily mediated by downregulation of P-selectin-induced activation of Mac-1. In a murine model of endovascular injury, selective inhibition of PDE4 significantly reduced neutrophil recruitment at the site of vascular damage. Conclusions - This study identifies PDE4 as a central node in the signaling network that mediates platelet-neutrophil adhesion and suggests that pharmacological inhibition of PDE4 may represent a novel therapeutic avenue for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

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