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Totani L.,Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Pharmacology | Evangelista V.,Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Pharmacology
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology | Year: 2010

Platelet-leukocyte interactions define a basic cell process that is characterized by the exchange of signals between platelets and different types of leukocytes and that bridges 2 fundamental pathophysiological events: atherothrombosis and inflammatory immune reactions. When this process takes place at the site of atherosclerotic plaque development or at the site of endothelial injury, platelet-dependent leukocyte recruitment and activation contributes to the inflammatory reaction of the vessel wall, which accounts for the exacerbation of atherosclerosis and for intimal hyperplasia and plaque instability. Moreover, platelet-leukocyte interactions may have a key role in modulating a wide array of responses of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, thus contributing to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases and tissue damage, as well as to host defense. © 2010 American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Source

Croci D.O.,University of Buenos Aires | Cumashi A.,University of Chieti Pescara | Ushakova N.A.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences | Preobrazhenskaya M.E.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences | And 16 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Sulfated polysaccharides from Laminaria saccharina (new name: Saccharina latissima) brown seaweed show promising activity for the treatment of inflammation, thrombosis, and cancer; yet the molecular mechanisms underlying these properties remain poorly understood. The aim of this work was to characterize, using in vitro and in vivo strategies, the anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, anti-angiogenic, and anti-tumor activities of two main sulfated polysaccharide fractions obtained from L. saccharina: a) L.s.-1.0 fraction mainly consisting of O-sulfated mannoglucuronofucans and b) L.s.-1.25 fraction mainly composed of sulfated fucans. Both fractions inhibited leukocyte recruitment in a model of inflammation in rats, although L.s.-1.25 appeared to be more active than L.s.-1.0. Also, these fractions inhibited neutrophil adhesion to platelets under flow. Only fraction L.s.-1.25, but not L.s.-1.0, displayed anticoagulant activity as measured by the activated partial thromboplastin time. Investigation of these fractions in angiogenesis settings revealed that only L.s.-1.25 strongly inhibited fetal bovine serum (FBS) induced in vitro tubulogenesis. This effect correlated with a reduction in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels in L.s.-1.25-treated endothelial cells. Furthermore, only parent sulfated polysaccharides from L. saccharina (L.s.-P) and its fraction L.s.-1.25 were powerful inhibitors of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induced pathways. Consistently, the L.s.-1.25 fraction as well as L.s.-P successfully interfered with fibroblast binding to human bFGF. The incorporation of L.s.-P or L.s.-1.25, but not L.s.-1.0 into Matrigel plugs containing melanoma cells induced a significant reduction in hemoglobin content as well in the frequency of tumor-associated blood vessels. Moreover, i.p. administrations of L.s.-1.25, as well as L.s.-P, but not L.s.-1.0, resulted in a significant reduction of tumor growth when inoculated into syngeneic mice. Finally, L.s.-1.25 markedly inhibited breast cancer cell adhesion to human platelet-coated surfaces. Thus, sulfated fucans are mainly responsible for the anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, antiangiogenic, and antitumor activities of sulfated polysaccharides from L. saccharina brown seaweed. © 2011 Croci et al. Source

Totani L.,Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Pharmacology | Piccoli A.,Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Pharmacology | Dell'Elba G.,Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Pharmacology | Concetta A.,Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Pharmacology | And 7 more authors.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology | Year: 2014

Objective - Platelet-neutrophil interactions play a key role in cardiovascular disease and inflammatory processes. Src family kinases mediate P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1-Mac-1 cross talk necessary for firm platelet-neutrophil adhesion. Because Src family kinase activity can be regulated by cAMP-dependent pathways, in this work, we evaluated the role of phosphodiesterases in the signaling events that are required to sustain platelet-neutrophil interactions and neutrophil recruitment at the site of vascular injury. Approach And Results - In neutrophils exposed to P-selectin, selective phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibition prevented Src family kinase-mediated phosphorylation of the proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 on Tyr579/Tyr580. The effects of PDE4 inhibition required protein kinase A, likely through protein kinase A-mediated activation of COOH-terminal Src kinase, a major negative regulator of Src family kinases. PDE4, but not other phosphodiesterase inhibitors, reduced platelet-neutrophil conjugates as well as neutrophil firm adhesion on spread platelets under flow conditions. The effect of PDE4 inhibition on neutrophil adhesion was primarily mediated by downregulation of P-selectin-induced activation of Mac-1. In a murine model of endovascular injury, selective inhibition of PDE4 significantly reduced neutrophil recruitment at the site of vascular damage. Conclusions - This study identifies PDE4 as a central node in the signaling network that mediates platelet-neutrophil adhesion and suggests that pharmacological inhibition of PDE4 may represent a novel therapeutic avenue for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Mattoscio D.,University of Chieti Pescara | Evangelista V.,Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Pharmacology | Recchiuti A.,University of Chieti Pescara | Pandolfi A.,University of Chieti Pescara | And 14 more authors.
FASEB Journal | Year: 2010

Inflammatory lung disease is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF). Mechanisms of unresolved acute inflammation in CF are not completely known, although the involvement of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in nonrespiratory cells is emerging. Here we examined CFTR expression and function in human platelets (PLTs) and found that they express a biologically active CFTR. CFTR blockade gave an ∼50% reduction in lipoxin A4 (LXA4) formation during PLT/polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) coincubations by inhibiting the lipoxin synthase activity of PLT 12-lipoxygenase. PLTs from CF patients generated ∼40% less LXA4 compared to healthy subject PLTs. CFTR inhibition increased PLT-dependent PMN viability (33.0±5.7 vs. 61.2±8.2%; P=0.033), suppressed nitric oxide generation (0.23±0.04 vs. 0.11±0.002 pmol/108 PLTs; P=0.004), while reducing AKT (1.02±0.12 vs. 0.71±0.007 U; P=0.04), and increasing p38 MAPK phosphorylation (0.650±0.09 vs. 1.04±0.24 U; P=0.03). Taken together, these findings indicate that PLTs from CF patients are affected by the molecular defect of CFTR. Moreover, this CF PLT abnormality may explain the failure of resolution in CF. © FASEB. Source

Tang W.H.,Yale University | Stitham J.,Yale University | Gleim S.,Yale University | Di Febbo C.,SS Annunziata Hospital | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Investigation | Year: 2011

Diabetes mellitus is associated with platelet hyperactivity, which leads to increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. This is coupled with enhanced levels of thromboxane (TX), an eicosanoid that facilitates platelet aggregation. Although intensely studied, the mechanism underlying the relationship among hyperglycemia, TX generation, and platelet hyperactivity remains unclear. We sought to identify key signaling components that connect high levels of glucose to TX generation and to examine their clinical relevance. In human platelets, aldose reductase synergistically modulated platelet response to both hyperglycemia and collagen exposure through a pathway involving ROS/PLCγ2/PKC/p38α MAPK. In clinical patients with platelet activation (deep vein thrombosis; saphenous vein graft occlusion after coronary bypass surgery), and particularly those with diabetes, urinary levels of a major enzymatic metabolite of TX (11-dehydro-TXB2 [TX-M]) were substantially increased. Elevated TX-M persisted in diabetic patients taking low-dose aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA), suggesting that such patients may have underlying endothelial damage, collagen exposure, and thrombovascular disease. Thus, our study has identified multiple potential signaling targets for designing combination chemotherapies that could inhibit the synergistic activation of platelets by hyperglycemia and collagen exposure. Source

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