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Sodaeizadeh H.,Laboratory of Tropical and Subtropical Agronomy and Ethnobotany | Sodaeizadeh H.,University of Yazd | Rafieiolhossaini M.,Laboratory of Tropical and Subtropical Agronomy and Ethnobotany | Rafieiolhossaini M.,Shahrekord University | Van Damme P.,Laboratory of Tropical and Subtropical Agronomy and Ethnobotany
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2010

This study evaluates the herbicidal potential of Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae) residues on seedling growth of Avena fatua L. (Poaceae) and Convolvulus arvensis L. (Convolvulaceae), and decomposition dynamics of its phytotoxins in the soil. Results show that among the different P. harmala plant parts used, leaves were the most toxic and caused the greatest negative effect on seedling length, seedling dry weight, leaf area and chlorophyll content of A. fatua and C. arvensis. Both weed species differed in their sensitivity to P. harmala residues. Higher reduction in plant growth parameters occurred in C. arvensis. In the presence of charcoal and depending on source of residue, receiver plants or amount of residues, the inhibitory effects of P. harmala on both test plants were eliminated or significantly reduced. Total phenolic acid content was higher in soil amended with leaf residues than that of soils with stem or root residues. Our findings revealed that a higher inhibitory effect P. harmala residues on both target species was obtained when weed seeds were sown 1 or 3 days after residue decomposition in the soil started. Total phenolic contents were maximum in the soil 1 day after decomposition, whereas phenolic amounts rapidly decreased with increasing decomposition. In conclusion, P. harmala residues had potent herbicidal activity and could be used as a natural herbicide for weed control. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Mohammad R.,Laboratory of Tropical and Subtropical Agronomy and Ethnobotany | Mohammad R.,Shahrekord University | Hamid S.,Laboratory of Tropical and Subtropical Agronomy and Ethnobotany | Hamid S.,University of Yazd | Patrick V.D.,Laboratory of Tropical and Subtropical Agronomy and Ethnobotany
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2010

To date, little is known about the effect of certain cultivation practices on German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) in Belgium. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of planting date and seedling age on agro-morphological characteristics, essential oil content and composition of German chamomile grown in Belgium. Treatments consisted of 4 different planting dates (15 April, 1 May, 15 May, 30 May) in combination with 5 seedling ages (30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days) replicated thrice in a randomized complete block design. Planting date had significant effects on all of the agro-morphological characteristics. The highest values for them were obtained from the first date of planting whereas values decreased with later planting dates. Days after sowing (DAS) and transplanting (DAT) to flowering were significantly influenced by planting date and decreased with a later planting date. For 30-days-old seedlings, (E)-β-farnesene, α-bisabolol oxide A, α-bisabolone oxide and spathulenol were the compounds which were significantly influenced by planting date whereas the highest amounts were obtained for the latest planting date. Plant height and plant spread were the only agro-morphological characteristics which were significantly influenced by age of seedling at transplanting. Seedling age significantly increased DAS to flowering whereas the effect was age-dependent. For the first date of planting, spathulenol was the only compound which was significantly influenced by seedling age at transplanting whereas the highest amount was obtained for 90-days-old seedlings. The results of this study provide new knowledge to produce chamomile flowers of adequate quality in Belgium. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Rafieiolhossaini M.,Laboratory of Tropical and Subtropical Agronomy and Ethnobotany | Rafieiolhossaini M.,Shahrekord University | Adams A.,Bioscience Technology | Sodaeizadeh H.,Laboratory of Tropical and Subtropical Agronomy and Ethnobotany | And 2 more authors.
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2012

For an adequate quality evaluation of aromatic plants grown under different conditions, a rapid, simple and sensitive method for the analysis of volatile constituents is indispensable. The main objective of the present study was to compare fast screening of German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with conventional isolation of the essential oil (steam distillation-solvent extraction (SDSE)) for the differentiation of chamomile essential oil constituents. Flowers were harvested at two distinct development stages: stage I, when ligulate flowers start to develop and tubular flowers are still closed, and stage II, when tubular flowers are partially to completely opened. Dried chamomile flowers at two development stages were extracted by means of both SDSE and HS-SPME, followed by GC-MS analysis. Among 30 compounds detected, (E)-β-farnesene (49%), artemisia ketone (10%) and germacrene D (9%) were the predominant volatile components in the HS-SPME-extract, while α-bisabolol oxide A (42%), chamazulene (21%) and (Z)-spiroether (8%) were the main essential oil constituents among the 13 compounds obtained by SDSE. After statistical analysis of the data, both techniques enabled the same conclusion: (E)-β-farnesene was the only compound which showed significant differences between the two flower development stages. These results suggest that HS-SPME-GC-MS can be used as a sensitive technique for the rapid screening and quality assessment of M. chamomilla. Source

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