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Bugada D.,University of Parma | Bugada D.,SIMPAR Group Study in Multidisciplinary Pain Research | De Gregori M.,SIMPAR Group Study in Multidisciplinary Pain Research | Compagnone C.,SIMPAR Group Study in Multidisciplinary Pain Research | And 22 more authors.
Trials | Year: 2015

Background: Inflammatory response is one of the key components of pain perception. Continuous infusion (CWI) of local anesthetics has been shown to be effective in controlling pain and reducing postoperative morphine consumption, but the effect of adding a potent anti-inflammatory drug (such as a steroid) has never been addressed. In our study, we want to investigate the effect of CWI with local anesthetic + methylprednisolone on acute and persistent pain, correlating clinical data with biomarkers of inflammation and genetic background. Methods/Design: After approval by their institutional review board, three hospitals will enroll 120 patients undergoing major abdominal surgery in a randomized, double-blind, phase III study. After a 24-h CWI of ropivacaine 0.2 % + methylprednisolone 1 mg/kg, patients will be randomly assigned to receive either ropivacaine + steroid or placebo for the next 24 h. Then, patient-controlled CWI with only ropivacaine 0.2 % or placebo (according to the group of randomization) is planned after 48 h up to 7 days (bolus 10 ml, lock-out 1 h, maximum dose of 40 ml in 4 h). Morphine equivalent consumption up to 7 days will be analyzed, together with any catheter- or drug-related side effect. Persistent post-surgical pain (PPSP) incidence will also be investigated. Our primary endpoint is analgesic consumption in the first 7 days after surgery; we will evaluate, as secondary endpoints, any catheter- or drug-related side effect, genotype/phenotype correlations between some polymorphisms and postoperative outcome in terms of morphine consumption, development of the inflammatory response, and incidence of PPSP. Finally, we will collect, in a subgroup of patients, wound exudate samples by micro-dialysis, blood samples, and urine samples up to 72 h to investigate local and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Discussion: This is a phase III trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of wound infusion with steroid and local anesthetic. The study is aimed also to evaluate how long this infusion has to be maintained in order to maximize effectiveness. Our data are intended to quantify the amount of ropivacaine and methylprednisolone needed by patients undergoing major abdominal surgery, to be stored in a new nanotechnology device for sustained pain treatment after surgery. We also aim to clarify the roles of inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and genetic background on postoperative and persistent pain after major abdominal surgery. Trial registration: The trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02002663) on 24 Oct. 2013. © 2015 Bugada et al. Source

Gigliuto C.,University of Pavia | De Gregori M.,Pain Therapy Service | Malafoglia V.,Institute for Research on Pain | Raffaeli W.,Institute for Research on Pain | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Pain Research | Year: 2014

In the last two decades, animal models have become important tools in understanding and treating pain, and in predicting analgesic efficacy. Although rodent models retain a dominant role in the study of pain mechanisms, large animal models may predict human biology and pharmacology in certain pain conditions more accurately. Taking into consideration the anatomical and physiological characteristics common to man and pigs (median body size, digestive apparatus, number, size, distribution and communication of vessels in dermal skin, epidermal-dermal junctions, the immunoreactivity of peptide nerve fibers, distribution of nociceptive and non-nociceptive fiber classes, and changes in axonal excitability), swines seem to provide the most suitable animal model for pain assessment. Locomotor function, clinical signs, and measurements (respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, electromyography), behavior (bright/quiet, alert, responsive, depressed, unresponsive), plasma concentration of substance P and cortisol, vocalization, lameness, and axon reflex vasodilatation by laser Doppler imaging have been used to assess pain, but none of these evaluations have proved entirely satisfactory. It is necessary to identify new methods for evaluating pain in large animals (particularly pigs), because of their similarities to humans. This could lead to improved assessment of pain and improved analgesic treatment for both humans and laboratory animals. © 2014 Gigliuto et al. Source

Borghesi A.,Neonatal Intensive Care Unit | Borghesi A.,Laboratory of Neonatal Immunology | Avanzini M.A.,Laboratory of Transplant Immunology Cell Factory | Novara F.,University of Pavia | And 17 more authors.
Cytotherapy | Year: 2013

Background aims: The umbilical cord (UC) is a promising source of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). UC-MSCs display very similar in vitro characteristics to bone marrow-MSCs and could represent a valuable alternative for cell-based therapies. However, it is still unclear whether UC-MSCs are prone or not to the acquisition of genomic imbalances during in vitro expansion. Methods: With the use of array-comparative genomic hybridization, we compared copy number variations of early (P2-P3) and late (>P5) passages of in vitro-expanded UC-MSCs. Results: In two of 11 long-term UC-MSCs cultures, weobserved the appearance of clones carrying genomic imbalances, which generated genetic mosaicism at intermediate passages. Although still able to reach the senescence phase, the cells carrying the genomic imbalance acquired a proliferative advantage, as demonstrated by the increase in frequency during long-term culture. Conclusions: Altogether, our results suggest that UC-MSC-based clinical protocols should be designed with caution; their clinical use should be preceded by array-comparative genomic hybridization screening for the acquisition of genomic imbalances during in vitro expansion. © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Source

Mazzucchelli I.,Laboratory of Neonatal Immunology | Mazzucchelli I.,University of Pavia | Lisini D.,Laboratory of Transplant Immunology Cell Factory | Lisini D.,Irccs Neurological Institute C Besta Foundation | And 15 more authors.
Immunology Letters | Year: 2015

Mature endothelial cells are known to sense microbial products through toll-like receptors (TLRs), a family of membrane proteins which serve as pathogen recognition and signaling elements; however, there are limited data in the literature about the expression and function of TLRs in human circulating endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs), which are considered the most likely endothelial precursors. We expanded and differentiated in vitro umbilical cord blood (UCB) and adult peripheral blood (PB) ECFCs and studied the expression of TLR1 to TLR10 mRNA by qPCR analysis, and we further characterized TLR function in ECFCs through functional assays including in vitro ECFC growth and differentiation, assessment of cytokine production, and measurement of intracellular Ca2+ signals. Both UCB- and PB-ECFCs had detectable mRNA levels of all the TLRs from 1 to 10; TLR4, a sensor of Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), had a higher level compared to other TLRs. Exposure to LPS induced cytokine production, although with less efficiency compared to PB-mononuclear cells. However, no effect of LPS was seen on ECFC growth and differentiation, and no increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, which is essential for ECFC proliferation, was observed after exposure to increasing amounts of LPS. Our data show that all TLRs from 1 to 10 are constitutively expressed in ECFCs, and suggest that TLR4 is functional in ECFCs, but its activation through its ligand LPS does not affect ECFC growth and differentiation. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Gregorini M.,University of Pavia | Corradetti V.,University of Pavia | Rocca C.,University of Pavia | Pattonieri E.F.,University of Pavia | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

We studied Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC) effects in experimental Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction (UUO), a fibrogenic renal disease. Rats were divided in 5 groups: sham, UUO, MSC treated-UUO, ACEi treated-UUO, MSC+ACEi treated-UUO. Data were collected at 1, 7, 21 days. UUO induced monocyte renal infiltration, tubular cell apoptosis, tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis and overexpression of TGFβ, Renin mRNA (RENmRNA), increase of Renin, Angiotensin II (AII) and aldosterone serum levels. Both lisinopril (ACEi) and MSC treatment prevented monocyte infiltration, reduced tubular cell apoptosis, renal fibrosis and TGFβ expression. Combined therapy provided a further suppression of monocyte infiltration and tubular injury. Lisinopril alone caused a rebound activation of Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS), while MSC suppressed RENmRNA and Renin synthesis and induced a decrease of AII and aldosterone serum levels. Furthermore, in in-vitro and in-vivo experiments, MSC inhibit Human antigen R (HuR) trascription, an enhancer of RENmRNA stability by IL10 release. In conclusion, we demonstrate that in UUO MSC prevent fibrosis, by decreasing HuR-dependent RENmRNA stability. Our findings give a clue to understand the molecular mechanism through which MSC may prevent fibrosis in a wide and heterogeneous number of diseases that share RAS activation as common upstream pathogenic mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Gregorini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

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