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Gaaloul I.,SMID Societe des Minoteries et Industries Diverses Sousse | Gaaloul I.,University of Sfax | Gaaloul I.,Laboratory of Transmissible Diseases LR99 ES27 | Riabi S.,Laboratory of Transmissible Diseases LR99 ES27 | Ghorbel R.E.,University of Sfax
Food Control | Year: 2011

Cereal products (flour and semolina) are of great importance in the Tunisian diet. Over one million tons of cereal (soft and hard wheat) are consumed a year. Bread, pasta and couscous are the main forms of cereal consumption providing more than 70% of dietary proteins. The SMID, a wheat grinding company has implemented the ISO 22000 system involving essentially the prerequisite programs (PRPs) and the HACCP principals. The objective of this study is to determine food safety practices and procedures related to the food safety management system (ISO 22000). The PRPs were identified to prepare for the HACCP. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Gaaloul I.,Laboratory of Transmissible Diseases LR99 ES27 | Gaaloul I.,University of Vermont | Riabi S.,Laboratory of Transmissible Diseases LR99 ES27 | Harrath R.,Laboratory of Transmissible Diseases LR99 ES27 | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Medicine Reports | Year: 2014

Coxsackieviruses B (CV-B) are known as the most common viral cause of human heart infections. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential role of CV-B in the etiology of infectious heart disease in hospitalized patients. The present study is based on blood, pericardial fluid and heart biopsies from 102 patients and 100 control subjects. All of the samples were examined for the detection of specific enteroviral genome using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequence analysis. Immunohistochemical investigations for the detection of the enteroviral capsid protein, VP1, from the biopsies were performed. The samples were cultured on confluent KB monolayer cell line for possible virus isolation. The epidemiological data were also collected. CV-B was detected in 28 of the 102 patients. The sequence analysis demonstrated that 27 strains were identical to CV-B3 and only one strain was identical to CV-B1. Furthermore, VP1 in the heart biopsies was detected in enterovirus-positive cases, as revealed by RT-PCR. Pericarditis infection was more frequent than myocarditis (P<0.05) or myopericarditis (P=0.05). The epidemiological data demonstrate that CV-B heart infections occur mainly during autumn and winter, and young male adults are more susceptible than adolescents or adults (P<0.5). The present findings demonstrate a higher prevalence of viral heart infections, suggesting that CV-B may significantly contribute to heart infections. Source


Gaaloul I.,Laboratory of Transmissible Diseases LR99 ES27 | Gaaloul I.,University of Vermont | Gaaloul I.,University of Sousse | Riabi S.,Laboratory of Transmissible Diseases LR99 ES27 | And 6 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Background: Viral myocarditis is a major cause of sudden unexpected death in children and young adults. Until recently, coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) has been the most commonly implicated virus in myocarditis. At present, no standard diagnosis is generally accepted due to the insensitivity of traditional diagnostic tests. This has prompted health professionals to seek new diagnostic approaches, which resulted in the emergence of new molecular pathological tests and a more detailed immunohistochemical and histopathological analysis. When supplemented with immunohistochemistry and molecular pathology, conventional histopathology may provide important clues regarding myocarditis underlying etiology.Methods: This study is based on post-mortem samples from sudden unexpected death victims and controls who were investigated prospectively. Immunohistochemical investigations for the detection of the enteroviral capsid protein VP1 and the characterization and quantification of myocardial inflammatory reactions as well as molecular pathological methods for enteroviral genome detection were performed.Results: Overall, 48 sudden unexpected death victims were enrolled. As for controls, 37 cases of unnatural traffic accident victims were studied. Enterovirus was detected in 6 sudden unexpected death cases (12.5 %). The control samples were completely enterovirus negative. Furthermore, the enteroviral capsid protein VP1 in the myocardium was detected in enterovirus-positive cases revealed by means of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Unlike control samples, immunohistochemical investigations showed a significant presence of T and B lymphocytes in sudden unexpected death victims.Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate clearly a higher prevalence of viral myocarditis in cases of sudden unexpected death compared to control subjects, suggesting that coxsackie B enterovirus may contribute to myocarditis pathogenesis significantly. © 2012 Gaaloul et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Riabi S.,Laboratory of Transmissible Diseases LR99 ES27 | Riabi S.,Laboratory of Bacteriology Virology | Harrath R.,Laboratory of Transmissible Diseases LR99 ES27 | Harrath R.,Laboratory of Bacteriology Virology | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Science | Year: 2014

Background: Decay Accelerating Factor (DAF) and Coxsackievirus-Adenovirus Receptor (CAR) have been identified as cellular receptors for Coxsackie B viruses (CV-B). The aim of this study is to elucidate the different binding properties of CV-B serotypes and to find out if there are any amino acid changes that could be associated to the different phenotypes.Twenty clinical CV-B isolates were tested on CaCo-2 cell line using anti-DAF (BRIC216) and anti-CAR (RmcB) antibodies. CV-B3 Nancy prototype strain and a recombinant strain (Rec, CV-B3/B4) were tested in parallel. The P1 genomic region of 12 CV-B isolates from different serotypes was sequenced and the Trans-Epithelial Electrical Resistance (TEER) along with the virus growth cycle was measured. Results: Infectivity assays revealed clear differences between CV-B isolates with regard to their interactions with DAF and CAR. All tested CV-B isolates showed an absolute requirement for CAR but varied in their binding to DAF. We also reported that for some isolates of CV-B, DAF attachment was not adapted. Genetic analysis of the P1 region detected multiple differences in the deduced amino acid sequences. Conclusion: Within a given serotype, variations exist in the capacity of virus isolates to bind to specific receptors, and variants with different additional ligands may arise during infection in humans as well as in tissue culture. © 2014Riabi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Bergaoui I.,University of Sfax | Bergaoui I.,Laboratory of Transmissible Diseases LR99 ES27 | Zairi A.,University of Sfax | Gharsallah H.,Laboratory Microorganisms and Human Pathology | And 4 more authors.
Medicinal Chemistry Research | Year: 2013

Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium responsible for a number of health problems, including sexually transmitted infection in humans. Efforts were made for the search of alternative therapies. Accordingly, the present study was undertaken to perform a systemic in vitro investigation on the anti-chlamydial potential of cationic peptides from frog's skin, namely dermaseptin S4 (S4) and its derivatives. Several strains of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar E were used to detect the antimicrobial activity of the new compounds. The infections tests and the toxic effects of the new compounds were determined using McCoy cells monolayers. Our data show that S4 exhibited a potent anti-chlamydial activity and found that these peptides blocked infection of McCoy cells and reduced the numbers of inclusion-forming units (81 %) after 48 h at low concentration (5 μg/ml). Besides, the finding revealed that increasing the number of positive charges of the peptide resulted in a reduced cytotoxicity without affecting the antimicrobial effect. Among all peptides, the derivative K4K 20S4 was the more potent to inhibit C. trachomatis growth with 96 % reduction in the number of chlamydial inclusions compared with an untreated control infection and, therefore, can be considered as potential agents for therapy of Chlamydia infectious diseases. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

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