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Santa Maria Nuova, Italy

Albini A.,Laboratory of Translational Research | Pagani A.,University of Insubria | Pulze L.,University of Insubria | Bruno A.,Scientific and Technology Park | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2015

Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been extensively investigated and employed for industrial use because of their peculiar physical properties, which make them ideal for many industrial applications. However, rapid growth of CNT employment raises concerns about the potential risks and toxicities for public health, environment, and workers associated with the manufacture and use of these new materials. Here we investigate the main routes of entry following environmental exposure to multi-wall CNTs (MWCNTs; currently the most widely used in industry). We developed a novel murine model that could represent a surrogate of a workplace exposure to MWCNTs. We traced the localization of MWCNTs and their possible role in inducing an innate immune response, inflammation, macrophage recruitment, and inflammatory conditions. Following environmental exposure of CD1 mice, we observed that MWCNTs rapidly enter and disseminate in the organism, initially accumulating in lungs and brain and later reaching the liver and kidney via the bloodstream. Since recent experimental studies show that CNTs are associated with the aggregation process of proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases, we investigated whether MWCNTs are able to induce amyloid fibril production and accumulation. Amyloid deposits in spatial association with macrophages and MWCNT aggregates were found in the brain, liver, lungs, and kidneys of exposed animals. Our data suggest that accumulation of MWCNTs in different organs is associated with inflammation and amyloid accumulation. In the brain, where we observed rapid accumulation and amyloid fibril deposition, exposure to MWCNTs might enhance progression of neurodegenerative and other amyloid-related diseases. Our data highlight the conclusion that, in a novel rodent model of exposure, MWCNTs may induce macrophage recruitment, activation, and amyloid deposition, causing potential damage to several organs. © 2015 Albini et al.

Lococo F.,Unit of Thoracic Surgery | Cesario A.,International Research Activities Office and System Medicine | Del Bufalo A.,Unit of Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology | Ciarrocchi A.,Laboratory of Translational Research | And 4 more authors.
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2015

Respiratory diseases including chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease (COPD) are globally increasing, with COPD predicted to become the third leading cause of global mortality by 2020. COPD is a heterogeneous disease with COPD-patients displaying different phenotypes as a result of a complex interaction between various genetic, environmental and life-style factors. In recent years, several investigations have been performed to better define such interactions, but the identification of the resulting phenotypes is still somewhat difficult, and may lead to inadequate assessment and management of COPD (usually based solely on the severity of airflow limitation parameter FEV1). In this new scenario, the management of COPD has been driven towards an integrative and holistic approach. The degree of complexity requires analyses based on large datasets (also including advanced functional genomic assays) and novel computational biology approaches (essential to extract information relevant for the clinical decision process and for the development of new drugs). Therefore, according to the emerging "systems/network medicine", COPD should be re.-evaluated considering multiple network(s) perturbations such as genetic and environmental changes. Systems Medicine (SM) platforms, in which patients are extensively characterized, offer a basis for a more targeted clinical approach, which is predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory ("P4-medicine"). It clearly emerges that in the next future, new opportunities will become available for clinical research on rare COPD patterns and for the identification of new biomarkers of comorbidity, severity, and progression. Herein, we overview the literature discussing the opportunity coming from the adoption of SMapproaches in COPD management, focusing on proteomics and metabolomics, and emphasizing the identification of disease sub-clusters, to improve the development of more effective therapies. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers.

Gugnoni M.,Laboratory of Translational Research
Oncogene | Year: 2016

The transdifferentiation of epithelial cells toward a mesenchymal condition (EMT) is a complex process that allows tumor cells to migrate to ectopic sites. Cadherins are not just structural proteins, but they act as sensors of the surrounding microenvironment and as signaling centers for cellular pathways. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these signaling functions remain poorly characterized. Cadherin-6 (CDH6) is a type 2 cadherin, which drives EMT during embryonic development and it is aberrantly re-activated in cancer. We recently showed that CDH6 is a TGFβ target and an EMT marker in thyroid cancer, suggesting a role for this protein in the progression of this type of tumor. Papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) are usually indolent lesions. However, metastatic spreading occurs in about 5% of the cases. The identification of molecular markers that could early predict the metastatic potential of these lesions would be strategic to design more tailored approaches and reduce patients overtreatment. In this work, we assessed the role of CDH6 in the metastatic progression of thyroid cancer. We showed that loss of CDH6 expression profoundly changes cellular architecture, alters the inter-cellular interaction modalities and attenuates EMT features in thyroid cancer cells. Using a yeast two-hybrid screening approach, based on a thyroid cancer patients library, we showed that CDH6 directly interacts with GABARAP, BNIP3 and BNIP3L, and that through these interactions CDH6 restrains autophagy and promotes re-organization of mitochondrial network through a DRP1-mediated mechanism. Analysis of the LIR domains suggests that the interaction with the autophagic machinery may be a common feature of many cadherin family members. Finally, the analysis of CDH6 expression in a unique cohort of human PTCs showed that CDH6 expression marks specifically EMT cells. and it is strongly associated with metastatic behavior and worse outcome of PTCs.Oncogene advance online publication, 4 July 2016; doi:10.1038/onc.2016.237. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited

Gandolfi G.,Laboratory of Translational Research | Sancisi V.,Laboratory of Translational Research | Piana S.,Pathology Unit | Ciarrocchi A.,Laboratory of Translational Research
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2015

The BRAF V600E mutation, resulting from the BRAFT1799A transversion, is the most common genetic mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), with a mean frequency close to 50% among all cases. A large number of studies in the past decade have tried to dissect the relevance and the function of the V600E mutation in controlling oncogenesis and progression of thyroid cancer. However, several works published in the latest years have provided new evidence, in partial conflict with the previous knowledge, suggesting the need of reconsidering the meaning of the BRAF V600E mutation in PTC. In this work, we attempt to discuss some of the most recent molecular, preclinical and clinical evidence to construct a more exhaustive model of function for the BRAF V600E in development, progression and therapeutic approach of thyroid cancer. © 2014 UICC.

Mirghani H.,Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus | Casiraghi O.,Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus | Amen F.,Peterborough City Hospital | He M.,Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Inc. | And 11 more authors.
Modern Pathology | Year: 2015

Accurate screening of HPV-driven head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is a critical issue. Although there are commercial direct and indirect assays for HPV-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, none are ideal. Recently, a novel RNA in situ hybridization test (the RNAscope HPV-test) has been developed for the detection of high-risk HPV E6/E7 mRNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. However, validation of this assay against the 'gold standard' (identification of high-risk HPV E6/E7 mRNA in fresh-frozen tissue by quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR) has only been reported by one team. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples from 50 patients with tonsil or tongue base carcinoma were tested using the RNAscope HPV-test, p16 immunohistochemistry, and chromogenic in situ hybridization for high-risk HPV-DNA. The results were compared with those of qRT-PCR on matched fresh-frozen samples. Compared with the reference test, the sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of the RNAscope HPV-test and of p16 immunohistochemistry were 93%, 94%, 96%, 88% and 96%, 93%, 96%, and 93%, respectively. Five cases were discrepant between the RNAscope HPV-test and p16-immunohistochemisrty. The RNAscope HPV-test demonstrated excellent analytical performance against the 'gold standard' and is easier to interpret than chromogenic in situ hybridization. p16-immunohistochemistry also performed very well, however its main weakness is that it is an indirect marker of the presence of HPV. These data suggest that the RNAscope HPV-test is a promising test that could be developed as a clinical standard for the precise identification of HPV-driven oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. © 2015 USCAP, Inc.

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