Pinelli A.,University of Milan |
Trivulzio S.,University of Milan |
Rossoni G.,University of Milan |
Redaelli R.,Laboratory of Haemostasis and Thrombosis |
Brenna S.,Laboratory of Clinical Chemistry
In Vivo | Year: 2012
Coronary artery diseases (CAD) evolving into acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with coagulation and thrombotic occlusion of coronary vessels in the presence of unstable atheroma. The atheromatous plaque becomes unstable when it is infiltrated by monocytes, macrophages and neutrophils capable of secreting proteases that induce plaque erosion, rupture and initialize the coagulation process. The aim of this study was (a) to analyse the plasma of patients with AMI for the presence of proteases that may activate rapid coagulation, (b) to evaluate coagulation markers as prothrombin fragment (F1+2) and antithrombin III and (c) to find an interrelation between proteases and coagulation markers. The examined plasma showed high values of prothrombin fragment (F1+2) and low levels of antithrombin III. These markers showed a highly significant negative-correlation. The plasma also exhibited increased levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) which were positively-correlated with the prothrombin fragment (F1+2). MMP-9 seems to cause the coagulation activity by increasing the level of prothrombin fragment (F1+2) and the consumption of antithrombin III. The examined plasma also exhibited high levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), which is known to modulate MMP-9 activity. The high plasma levels of MMP-9 and NGAL can be attributed to plaque instability and appear to activate sudden coagulation. MMP-9 and NGAL, in the presence of altered values of prothrombin fragment (F1+2) and antithrombin III in AMI patients, seem to be suitable markers to be studied in unstable plaque patients, for the prediction and prevention of acute coronary syndrome.