Donostia / San Sebastián, Spain
Donostia / San Sebastián, Spain

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Lopez de Maturana R.,Laboratory of Stem Cells and Neural Repair | Aguila J.C.,Laboratory of Stem Cells and Neural Repair | Sousa A.,Laboratory of Stem Cells and Neural Repair | Vazquez N.,Laboratory of Stem Cells and Neural Repair | And 8 more authors.
Neurobiology of Aging | Year: 2014

Inflammatory mechanisms are activated in aging and late-onset neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) contribute to both idiopathic and familial forms of PD. Here, we investigated the involvement of LRRK2 in inflammatory pathways using primary dermal fibroblasts from patients with 2 common mutations in LRRK2 (G2019S and R1441G), idiopathic PD and age-matched healthy individuals. Basal cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 RNA levels were very high in the fibroblasts of all patients. Remarkably, LRRK2 silencing experiments significantly reduced basal COX-2 levels and COX-2 induction after a pro-inflammatory stimulus. Additionally, in samples from patients with the R1441G mutation and with idiopathic PD, we found a prominent cytoplasmic re-distribution of human antigen R, a protein that, among others, stabilizes COX-2 RNA. Furthermore, the response to lipopolysaccharide was defective in these 2 groups, which showed weak induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduced NFκB transcriptional activation. In summary, we describe multiple defects in inflammatory pathways in which LRRK2 appears to be critically involved. Further studies are required to establish the therapeutic implications of inflammatory dysregulation in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Ordonez C.,University of Navarra | Moreno-Murciano P.,CIBER ISCIII | Hernandez M.,University of Navarra | Di Caudo C.,University of Navarra | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The existence of endogenous neural progenitors in the nigrostriatal system could represent a powerful tool for restorative therapies in Parkinson's disease. Sox-2 is a transcription factor expressed in pluripotent and adult stem cells, including neural progenitors. In the adult brain Sox-2 is expressed in the neurogenic niches. There is also widespread expression of Sox-2 in other brain regions, although the neurogenic potential outside the niches is uncertain. Here, we analyzed the presence of Sox-2+ cells in the adult primate (Macaca fascicularis) brain in naïve animals (N = 3) and in animals exposed to systemic administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine to render them parkinsonian (N = 8). Animals received bromodeoxyuridine (100 mg/kg once a day during five consecutive days) to label proliferating cells and their progeny. Using confocal and electron microscopy we analyzed the Sox-2+ cell population in the nigrostriatal system and investigated changes in the number, proliferation and neurogenic potential of Sox-2+ cells, in control conditions and at two time points after MPTP administration. We found Sox-2+ cells with self-renewal capacity in both the striatum and the substantia nigra. Importantly, only in the striatum Sox-2+ was expressed in some calretinin+ neurons. MPTP administration led to an increase in the proliferation of striatal Sox-2+ cells and to an acute, concomitant decrease in the percentage of Sox-2+/calretinin+ neurons, which recovered by 18 months. Given their potential capacity to differentiate into neurons and their responsiveness to dopamine neurotoxic insults, striatal Sox-2+ cells represent good candidates to harness endogenous repair mechanisms for regenerative approaches in Parkinson's disease. © 2013 Ordoñez et al.


Aristieta A.,University of the Basque Country | Azkona G.,Laboratory of Stem Cells and Neural Repair | Sagarduy A.,University of the Basque Country | Miguelez C.,University of the Basque Country | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

L-DOPA is the most effective treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), but prolonged use leads to disabling motor complications including dyskinesia. Strong evidence supports a role of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in the pathophysiology of PD whereas its role in dyskinesia is a matter of controversy. Here, we investigated the involvement of STN in dyskinesia, using single-unit extracellular recording, behavioural and molecular approaches in hemi-parkinsonian rats rendered dyskinetic by chronic L-DOPA administration. Our results show that chronic L-DOPA treatment does not modify the abnormal STN activity induced by the 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway in this model. Likewise, we observed a loss of STN responsiveness to a single L-DOPA dose both in lesioned and sham animals that received daily L-DOPA treatment. We did not find any correlation between the abnormal involuntary movement (AIM) scores and the electrophysiological parameters of STN neurons recorded 24 h or 20-120 min after the last L-DOPA injection, except for the axial subscores. Nonetheless, unilateral chemical ablation of the STN with ibotenic acid resulted in a reduction in global AIM scores and peak-severity of dyskinesia. In addition, STN lesion decreased the anti-dyskinetogenic effect of buspirone in a reciprocal manner. Striatal protein expression was altered in dyskinetic animals with increases in ΔFosB, phosphoDARPP-32, dopamine receptor (DR) D3 and DRD2/DRD1 ratio. The STN lesion attenuated the striatal molecular changes and normalized the DRD2/DRD1 ratio. Taken together, our results show that the STN plays a role, if modest, in the physiopathology of dyskinesias. © 2012 Aristieta et al.


Azkona G.,Animal Model Unit | Azkona G.,Laboratory of Stem Cells and Neural Repair | Azkona G.,Institute DInvestigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS | Sagarduy A.,University of the Basque Country | And 9 more authors.
Neuropharmacology | Year: 2014

Dopamine replacement with l-DOPA is the most effective therapy in Parkinson's disease. However, with chronic treatment, half of the patients develop an abnormal motor response including dyskinesias. The specific molecular mechanisms underlying dyskinesias are not fully understood. In this study, we used a well-characterized animal model to first establish the molecular differences between rats that did and did not develop dyskinesias. We then investigated the molecular substrates implicated in the anti-dyskinetic effect of buspirone, a 5HT1A partial agonist. Striatal protein expression profile of dyskinetic animals revealed increased levels of the dopamine receptor (DR)D3, ΔFosB and phospho (p)CREB, as well as an over-activation of the DRD1 signalling pathway, reflected by elevated ratios of phosphorylated DARPP32 and ERK2. Buspirone reduced the abnormal involuntary motor response in dyskinetic rats in a dose-dependent fashion. Buspirone (4 mg/kg) dramatically reduced the presence and severity of dyskinesias (by 83%) and normalized DARPP32 and ERK2 phosphorylation ratios, while the increases in DRD3, ΔFosB and pCREB observed in dyskinetic rats were not modified. Pharmacological experiments combining buspirone with 5HT1A and DRD3 antagonists confirmed that normalization of both pDARPP32 and pERK2 is required, but not sufficient, for blocking dyskinesias. The correlation between pDARPP32 ratio and dyskinesias was significant but not strong, pointing to the involvement of convergent factors and signalling pathways. Our results suggest that in dyskinetic rats DRD3 striatal over-expression could be instrumental in the activation of DRD1-downstream signalling and demonstrate that the anti-dyskinetic effect of buspirone in this model is correlated with DRD1 pathway normalization. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


PubMed | University of Barcelona, University of the Basque Country, Animal Model Unit and Laboratory of Stem Cells and Neural Repair
Type: | Journal: Neuropharmacology | Year: 2014

Dopamine replacement with l-DOPA is the most effective therapy in Parkinsons disease. However, with chronic treatment, half of the patients develop an abnormal motor response including dyskinesias. The specific molecular mechanisms underlying dyskinesias are not fully understood. In this study, we used a well-characterized animal model to first establish the molecular differences between rats that did and did not develop dyskinesias. We then investigated the molecular substrates implicated in the anti-dyskinetic effect of buspirone, a 5HT1A partial agonist. Striatal protein expression profile of dyskinetic animals revealed increased levels of the dopamine receptor (DR)D3, FosB and phospho (p)CREB, as well as an over-activation of the DRD1 signalling pathway, reflected by elevated ratios of phosphorylated DARPP32 and ERK2. Buspirone reduced the abnormal involuntary motor response in dyskinetic rats in a dose-dependent fashion. Buspirone (4mg/kg) dramatically reduced the presence and severity of dyskinesias (by 83%) and normalized DARPP32 and ERK2 phosphorylation ratios, while the increases in DRD3, FosB and pCREB observed in dyskinetic rats were not modified. Pharmacological experiments combining buspirone with 5HT1A and DRD3 antagonists confirmed that normalization of both pDARPP32 and pERK2 is required, but not sufficient, for blocking dyskinesias. The correlation between pDARPP32 ratio and dyskinesias was significant but not strong, pointing to the involvement of convergent factors and signalling pathways. Our results suggest that in dyskinetic rats DRD3 striatal over-expression could be instrumental in the activation of DRD1-downstream signalling and demonstrate that the anti-dyskinetic effect of buspirone in this model is correlated with DRD1 pathway normalization.


PubMed | Biodonostia Institute, University of the Basque Country and Laboratory of Stem Cells and Neural Repair
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Neurobiology of aging | Year: 2014

Inflammatory mechanisms are activated in aging and late-onset neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinsons disease (PD). Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) contribute to both idiopathic and familial forms of PD. Here, we investigated the involvement of LRRK2 in inflammatory pathways using primary dermal fibroblasts from patients with 2 common mutations in LRRK2 (G2019S and R1441G), idiopathic PD and age-matched healthy individuals. Basal cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 RNA levels were very high in the fibroblasts of all patients. Remarkably, LRRK2 silencing experiments significantly reduced basal COX-2 levels and COX-2 induction after a pro-inflammatory stimulus. Additionally, in samples from patients with the R1441G mutation and with idiopathic PD, we found a prominent cytoplasmic re-distribution of human antigen R, a protein that, among others, stabilizes COX-2 RNA. Furthermore, the response to lipopolysaccharide was defective in these 2 groups, which showed weak induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduced NFB transcriptional activation. In summary, we describe multiple defects in inflammatory pathways in which LRRK2 appears to be critically involved. Further studies are required to establish the therapeutic implications of inflammatory dysregulation in the pathophysiology of Parkinsons disease.


PubMed | University of Barcelona, Cell Reprogramming and Differentiation Platform, University of the Basque Country, Harvard University and Laboratory of Stem Cells and Neural Repair
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Stem cell reports | Year: 2014

Neurons obtained directly from human somatic cells hold great promise for disease modeling and drug screening. Available protocols rely on overexpression of transcription factors using integrative vectors and are often slow, complex, and inefficient. We report a fast and efficient approach for generating induced neural cells (iNCs) directly from human hematopoietic cells using Sendai virus. Upon SOX2 and c-MYC expression, CD133-positive cord blood cells rapidly adopt a neuroepithelial morphology and exhibit high expansion capacity. Under defined neurogenic culture conditions, they express mature neuronal markers and fire spontaneous action potentials that can be modulated with neurotransmitters. SOX2 and c-MYC are also sufficient to convert peripheral blood mononuclear cells into iNCs. However, the conversion process is less efficient and resulting iNCs have limited expansion capacity and electrophysiological activity upon differentiation. Our study demonstrates rapid and efficient generation of iNCs from hematopoietic cells while underscoring the impact of target cells on conversion efficiency.


PubMed | University of Salamanca, University of Granada, Hospital Universitario Insular Of Gran Canaria, Goethe University Frankfurt and Laboratory of Stem Cells and Neural Repair
Type: | Journal: Molecular neurobiology | Year: 2016

Mutations in PINK1 (PARK6), a serine/threonine kinase involved in mitochondrial homeostasis, are associated with early onset Parkinsons disease. Fibroblasts from Parkinsons disease patients with compound heterozygous mutations in exon 7 (c.1488 + 1G > A; c.1252_1488del) showed no apparent signs of mitochondrial impairment. To elucidate changes primarily caused by lack of functional PINK1, we over-expressed wild-type PINK1, which induced a significant downregulation of LRRK2 (PARK8). Indeed, we found that LRRK2 protein basal levels were significantly higher in the mutant PINK1 fibroblasts. To examine the interaction between the two PARK genes in a disease-relevant cell context, we generated induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from mutant, carrier and control fibroblasts by lentiviral-mediated re-programming. Efficiency of neural induction and dopamine differentiation using a floor-plate induction protocol was similar in all genotypes. As observed in fibroblasts, PINK1 mutant neurons showed increased LRRK2 expression both at the RNA and protein level and transient over-expression of wild-type PINK1 efficiently downregulated LRRK2 levels. Additionally, we confirmed a dysregulation of LRRK2 expression in fibroblasts from patients with a different homozygous mutation in PINK1 exon 4, c.926G > A (G309D). Thus, our results identify a novel role of PINK1 modulating the levels of LRRK2 in Parkinsons disease fibroblasts and neurons, suggest a convergent pathway for these PARK genes, and broaden the role of LRRK2 in the pathogenesis of Parkinsons disease.


Aguila J.C.,Laboratory of Stem Cells and Neural Repair | Hedlund E.,Karolinska Institutet | Sanchez-Pernaute R.,Laboratory of Stem Cells and Neural Repair
Stem Cells International | Year: 2012

Pluripotent stem cells are regarded as a promising cell source to obtain human dopamine neurons in sufficient amounts and purity for cell replacement therapy. Importantly, the success of clinical applications depends on our ability to steer pluripotent stem cells towards the right neuronal identity. In Parkinson disease, the loss of dopamine neurons is more pronounced in the ventrolateral population that projects to the sensorimotor striatum. Because synapses are highly specific, only neurons with this precise identity will contribute, upon transplantation, to the synaptic reconstruction of the dorsal striatum. Thus, understanding the developmental cell program of the mesostriatal dopamine neurons is critical for the identification of the extrinsic signals and cell-intrinsic factors that instruct and, ultimately, determine cell identity. Here, we review how extrinsic signals and transcription factors act together during development to shape midbrain cell fates. Further, we discuss how these same factors can be applied in vitro to induce, select, and reprogram cells to the mesostriatal dopamine fate. Copyright © 2012 Julio C. Aguila et al.


PubMed | Laboratory of Ubiquitylation and Cancer Molecular Biology, Biodonostia Research Institute, Donostia Universitary Hospital and Laboratory of Stem Cells and Neural Repair
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of neuroinflammation | Year: 2016

Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) contribute to both familial and idiopathic forms of Parkinsons disease (PD). Neuroinflammation is a key event in neurodegeneration and aging, and there is mounting evidence of LRRK2 involvement in inflammatory pathways. In a previous study, we described an alteration of the inflammatory response in dermal fibroblasts from PD patients expressing the G2019S and R1441G mutations in LRRK2.Taking advantage of cellular reprogramming, we generated induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines and neurons thereafter, harboring LRRK2LRRK2 silencing decreased -synuclein protein levels in mutated neurons and modified NF-B transcriptional targets, such as PTGS2 (COX-2) and TNFAIP3 (A20). We next tested whether NF-B and -synuclein pathways converged and found that TNF modulated -synuclein levels, although we could not detect an effect of LRRK2 mutations, partly because of the individual variability. Nevertheless, we confirmed NF-B dysregulation in mutated neurons, as shown by a protracted recovery of IB and a clear impairment in p65 nuclear translocation in the LRRK2 mutants.Altogether, our results show that LRRK2 mutations affect -synuclein regulation and impair NF-B canonical signaling in iPSC-derived neurons. TNF modulated -synuclein proteostasis but was not modified by the LRRK2 mutations in this paradigm. These results strengthen the link between LRRK2 and the innate immunity system underscoring the involvement of inflammatory pathways in the neurodegenerative process in PD.

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