Mancio A.A.,Laboratory of Separation Processes and Applied Thermodynamic TERM@ |
Mancio A.A.,Federal University of Pará |
da Costa K.M.B.,Laboratory of Separation Processes and Applied Thermodynamic TERM@ |
da Costa K.M.B.,Federal University of Pará |
And 12 more authors.
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis | Year: 2017
In this work, the influence of catalyst content on the physicochemical properties (acid value, saponification value, specific gravity, kinematic viscosity, and flash point), yield and chemical composition (hydrocarbons and oxygenates) of organic liquid products (OLP) obtained by thermal-catalytic cracking of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq.) has been systematically investigated in technical scale. The pilot experiments were carry out in a stirred tank slurry reactor of 143 L, operating in batch mode at 450 °C and 1.0 atm, using 5, 10, 15, and 20% (wt.) Na2CO3 as catalyst. The catalyst has been characterized by XRF and SEM techniques. The organic liquid products have been physicochemical characterized for acid and saponification values, specific gravity, refractive index, kinematics viscosity, copper strip corrosion, and flash point. The chemical composition of organic liquid products was determined by GC–MS. The experimental results indicate that initial cracking temperature, as well as specific gravity, kinematic viscosity, acid value, and saponification value of OLP show a tendency to decrease with increasing catalyst content. Hydrocarbons and oxygenates were the major chemical compounds present in OLP, with chemical composition strongly dependent on the catalyst content. The major hydrocarbons present in the organic liquid products have carbon chain length ranging from C12 to C15 and its summation shows a tendency to increase with increasing catalyst content, while the summation of oxygenate compounds shows a tendency to decrease. In addition, the distribution of hydrocarbons classes (normal paraffins, olefins, and naphthenics) present in OLP shows a maximum concentration for normal paraffins and naphthenics and a minimum concentration for olefins using 10% (wt.) Na2CO3 as catalyst. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Da Mota S.D.P.,Laboratory of Separation Processes and Applied Thermodynamic TERM |
Da Mota S.D.P.,Federal University of Pará |
Mancio A.A.,Laboratory of Separation Processes and Applied Thermodynamic TERM |
Mancio A.A.,Federal University of Pará |
And 16 more authors.
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis | Year: 2014
In this work, the production of light diesel like fractions by thermal catalytic cracking of crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq.) has been systematically investigated in pilot scale. The cracking reactions were carried out in a reactor of 143 L, operating in batch mode at 450 °C and atmospheric pressure, using 20% (w/w) sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) as catalyst. The reaction products called organic liquid products (OLP) were submitted to distillation using a laboratory scale column (Vigreux Column) of three stages in order to obtain light diesel like fractions. The catalyst has been characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, TGA and DTG. The OLP and the green diesel fractions have been physical-chemical characterized by officials AOCS, ASTM, and ABNT/NBR methods in terms of acid value, saponification value, density, refraction index, kinematics viscosity, copper strip corrosion, carbon residue, flash point, and distillation curve. The chemical composition of green diesel has been determined by FTIR spectroscopy and GC-MS. The results show that the process yield on OLP was 65.86% (w/w) with an acid value of 1.02 mg KOH/g OLP and kinematic viscosity of 1.48 mm2/s, 30.24% (w/w) non-condensable gases, 2.5% (w/w) water, and 1.4% (w/w) coke. The yield on green diesel obtained by distillation average 24.9% (w/w), presenting an acid value of 1.68 mg KOH/g green diesel and kinematic viscosity of 1.48 mm2/s. The GC-MS analysis indicated that green diesel is composed of 91.38% (w/w) of hydrocarbons (31.27% normal paraffins, 54.44% olefins and 5.67% of naphthenics), and 8.62% (w/w) of oxygenates compounds. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Neto A.F.G.,Federal University of Pará |
Lopes F.S.,Federal University of Pará |
Carvalho E.V.,Federal University of Pará |
Huda M.N.,University of Texas at Arlington |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Modeling | Year: 2015
This paper presents a theoretical study using density functional theory to calculate thermodynamics properties of major molecules compounds at gas phase of fuels like gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline–ethanol mixture in thermal equilibrium on temperature range up to 1500 K. We simulated a composition of gasoline mixture with ethanol for a thorough study of thermal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, entropy, heat capacity at constant pressure with respect to temperature in order to study the influence caused by ethanol as an additive to gasoline. We used semi-empirical computational methods as well in order to know the efficiency of other methods to simulate fuels through this methodology. In addition, the ethanol influence through the changes in percentage fractions of chemical energy released in combustion reaction and the variations on thermal properties for autoignition temperatures of fuels was analyzed. We verified how ethanol reduces the chemical energy released by gasoline combustion and how at low temperatures the gas phase fuels in thermal equilibrium have similar thermodynamic behavior. Theoretical results were compared with experimental data, when available, and showed agreement. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.