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San Ignacio de Hidalgo, Mexico

Johnson R.J.,University of Colorado at Denver | Lanaspa M.A.,University of Colorado at Denver | Sanchez-Lozada L.G.,Laboratory of Renal Physiopathology | Rodriguez-Iturbe B.,University of Zulia
American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology

The discovery of hypertension: evolving views on the role of the kidneys, and current hot topics. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 308: F167–F178, 2015. First published November 5, 2014; doi:10.1152/ajprenal.00503.2014.—Primary hypertension is increasingly common and is associated with significant morbidity. Here, we review the history of its discovery and rise during the last century with an emphasis on studies trying to identify its cause. Early studies identified a defect in sodium excretion by the kidney as being central to the pathogenesis. Recent studies have focused on a variety of genetic, congenital (fetal programming), and acquired mechanisms for causing the defect in natriuresis. Certain risk factors are apparent, including genetic polymorphisms that regulate sodium excretion, a congenital reduction in nephron number, obesity and hyperleptinemia, an elevated sympathetic nervous system, diet (salt and fructose), and metabolic (hyperuricemia) mechanisms. The kidney shows evidence for renal arteriolar vasoconstriction, an intrarenal inflammatory response, local oxidative stress, and intrarenal activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Recent studies suggest that intrarenal T cells have an important role in causing hypertension to be persistent, likely due to the induction of a local autoimmune response to neoantigens such as heat shock protein 70 and protein aggregates formed by isoketals resulting from lipid peroxidation. Salt retention due to impairment in pressure-diuresis leads to the release of cardiotonic steroids and central nervous system effects that cause systemic vasoconstriction and a rise in blood pressure. Some recent studies suggest that salt may increase blood pressure not simply by effects on extracellular volume but rather as a consequence of hyperosmolarity. These new insights could lead to new approaches for the prevention and treatment of this important disease. © 2015 the American Physiological Society. Source

Johnson R.J.,Eastern Colorado Health Care System | Rodriguez-Iturbe B.,University of Zulia | Roncal-Jimenez C.,University of Colorado at Denver | Lanaspa M.A.,University of Colorado at Denver | And 6 more authors.
Nature Reviews Nephrology

An epidemic of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Mesoamerica is providing new insights into the mechanisms by which salt and water might drive hypertension and CKD. Increasingly, evidence suggests that recurrent dehydration and salt loss might be a mechanism that causes CKD, and experimental studies suggest a key role for increased plasma osmolarity in activating both intrarenal (polyol-fructokinase) and extrarenal (vasopressin) pathways that drive renal injury. Thus, we propose that water and salt might influence blood pressure and kidney disease through the timing and combination of their intake, which affect plasma osmolarity as well as intrarenal and extrarenal mechanisms of renal injury. The type of fluid intake might also be important, as fluids containing fructose can trigger activation of these pathways. Future studies should investigate the effects of salt, sugar and fluid intake on plasma osmolarity as a potential pathogenetic mechanism in renal injury and high blood pressure. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Arellano-Buendia A.S.,Laboratory of Renal Physiopathology | Arellano-Buendia A.S.,Instituto Nacional Of Cardiologia Ignacio Chavez | Tostado-Gonzalez M.,Laboratory of Renal Physiopathology | Tostado-Gonzalez M.,Instituto Nacional Of Cardiologia Ignacio Chavez | And 11 more authors.
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity

This study addressed the relationship of proinflammatory cytokines and Nrf2-Keap1 system in diabetic nephropathy. The experimental groups were control, diabetic, and diabetic treated with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). The renal function, proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines, oxidative stress, morphology, and nephrin expression were assessed. Diabetic group showed impaired renal function in association with oxidative stress and decreased Nrf2 nuclear translocation. These results were associated with increased mesangial matrix index, interstitial fibrosis, and increased nephrin expression in cortex and urine excretion. Additionally, interleukin-1β, IL-6, and transforming growth factor-β1 were increased in plasma and kidney. MMF treatment conserved renal function, prevented renal structural alterations, and partially prevented the proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines overexpression. Despite that MMF treatment induced nephrin overexpression in renal tissue, preventing its urinary loss. MMF salutary effects were associated with a partial prevention of oxidative stress, increased Nrf2 nuclear translocation, and conservation of antioxidant enzymes in renal tissue. In conclusion, our results confirm that inflammation is a key factor in the progression of diabetic nephropathy and suggest that treatment with MMF protects the kidney by an antioxidant mechanism, possibly regulated at least in part by the Nrf2/Keap1 system, in addition to its well-known anti-inflammatory effects. © 2016 Abraham Said Arellano-Buendía et al. Source

Tapia E.,Laboratory of Renal Physiopathology | Cristobal M.,Laboratory of Renal Physiopathology | Garcia-Arroyo F.E.,Laboratory of Renal Physiopathology | Monroy-Sanchez F.,Laboratory of Renal Physiopathology | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology

Fructose in sweetened beverages (SB) increases the risk for metabolic and cardiorenal disorders, and these effects are in part mediated by a secondary increment in uric acid (UA). Rodents have an active uricase, thus requiring large doses of fructose to increase plasma UA and to induce metabolic syndrome and renal hemodynamic changes. We therefore hypothesized that the effects of fructose in rats might be enhanced in the setting of uricase inhibition. Four groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 7/group) were studied during 8 wk: water + vehicle (V), water + oxonic acid (OA; 750 mg/k BW), sweetened beverage (SB; 11% fructose-glucose combination) + V, and SB + OA. Systemic blood pressure, plasma UA, triglycerides (TG), glucose and insulin, glomerular hemodynamics, renal structural damage, renal cortex and liver UA, TG, markers of oxidative stress, mitDNA, fructokinase, and fatty liver synthase protein expressions were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Chronic hyperuricemia and SB induced features of the metabolic syndrome, including hypertension, hyperuricemia, hyperglycemia, and systemic and hepatic TG accumulation. OA alone also induced glomerular hypertension, and SB alone induced insulin resistance. SB + OA induced a combined phenotype including metabolic and renal alterations induced by SB or OA alone and in addition also acted synergistically on systemic and glomerular pressure, plasma glucose, hepatic TG, and oxidative stress. These findings explain why high concentrations of fructose are required to induce greater metabolic changes and renal disease in rats whereas humans, who lack uricase, appear to be much more sensitive to the effects of fructose. © 2013 the American Physiological Society. Source

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