Laboratory of Red Blood Cell Diagnostics

Amsterdam, Netherlands

Laboratory of Red Blood Cell Diagnostics

Amsterdam, Netherlands

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Bots M.,University of Amsterdam | Stroobants A.K.,University of Amsterdam | Delzenne B.,University of Amsterdam | Soeters M.R.,University of Amsterdam | And 6 more authors.
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: Haemoglobin (Hb) variants are well-known factors interfering with accurate HbA1c testing. This report describes two novel Hb variants leading to inappropriate quantification of HbA1c by ion-exchange chromatography. Methods: Glycated forms of novel Hb variants were recognised in the blood of two patients with diabetes mellitus screened by HbA1c ion-exchange chromatography. Dedicated high-resolution cation-exchange chromatography and subsequent DNA sequencing revealed the exact nature of the variants. Other common techniques for quantifying HbA1c were applied on both samples and haematological parameters were determined to judge possible pathology associated with the novel Hb variants. Results: A fraction of 15% of abnormal Hb was observed in a 37-year-old female. DNA sequencing revealed a heterozygous mutation in the α1-globin gene, resulting in a leucine-to-phenylalanine amino-acid substitution (HBA1: c.301C>T, p.Leu101Phe). We named this variant Hb Weesp. The other novel variant, Hb Haelen, presented as a 40% fraction in a 63-year-old male and resulted from a heterozygous amino acid substitution in the β-globin gene (HBB: c.335T>C, p.Val112Gly). The presence of both Hb variants resulted in aberrant separation of the Hb components, leading to an inadequate quantification of HbA1c. Conclusions: Close examination of HbA1c chromatograms revealed two novel, clinically silent Hb variants that interfere with HbA1c quantification. Healthcare providers need to be aware of the potential of such Hb variants when interpreting HbA1c results. © 2015 by De Gruyter.


Van Zwieten R.,Laboratory of Red Blood Cell Diagnostics | Veldthuis M.,Laboratory of Red Blood Cell Diagnostics | Delzenne B.,University of Amsterdam | Berghuis J.,Laboratory of Red Blood Cell Diagnostics | And 5 more authors.
Hemoglobin | Year: 2014

More than 20,000 blood samples of individuals living in The Netherlands and suspected of hemolytic anemia or diabetes were analyzed by high resolution cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Besides common disease-related hemoglobins (Hbs), rare variants were also detected. The variant Hbs were retrospectively analyzed by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and by isoelectric focusing (IEF). For unambiguous identification, the globin genes were sequenced. Most of the 80 Hb variants detected by initial screening on HPLC were also separated by capillary electrophoresis (CE), but a few variants were only detectable with one of these methods. Some variants were unstable, had thalassemic properties or increased oxygen affinity, and some interfered with Hb A2 measurement, detection of sickle cell Hb or Hb A1c quantification. Two of the six novel variants, Hb Enschede (HBA2: c.308G, p.Ser103Asn) and Hb Weesp (HBA1: c.301CT, p.Leu101Phe), had no clinical consequences. In contrast, two others appeared clinically significant: Hb Ede (HBB: c.53AT, p.Lys18Met) caused thalassemia and Hb Waterland (HBB: c.428CT, pAla143Val) was related to mild polycytemia. Hb A2-Venlo (HBD: c.193 p.Gly65Ser) and Hb A2-Rotterdam (HBD: c.38AC, p.Asn13Thr) interfered with Hb A2 quantification. This survey shows that HPLC analysis followed by globin gene sequencing of rare variants is an effective method to reveal Hb variants. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Van Zwieten R.,Laboratory of Red Blood Cell Diagnostics | Verhoeven A.J.,University of Amsterdam | Roos D.,Laboratory of Red Blood Cell Diagnostics
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2014

Red blood cells (RBCs) contain large amounts of iron and operate in highly oxygenated tissues. As a result, these cells encounter a continuous oxidative stress. Protective mechanisms against oxidation include prevention of formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), scavenging of various forms of ROS, and repair of oxidized cellular contents. In general, a partial defect in any of these systems can harm RBCs and promote senescence, but is without chronic hemolytic complaints. In this review we summarize the often rare inborn defects that interfere with the various protective mechanisms present in RBCs. NADPH is the main source of reduction equivalents in RBCs, used by most of the protective systems. When NADPH becomes limiting, red cells are prone to being damaged. In many of the severe RBC enzyme deficiencies, a lack of protective enzyme activity is frustrating erythropoiesis or is not restricted to RBCs. Common hereditary RBC disorders, such as thalassemia, sickle-cell trait, and unstable hemoglobins, give rise to increased oxidative stress caused by free heme and iron generated from hemoglobin. The beneficial effect of thalassemia minor, sickle-cell trait, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency on survival of malaria infection may well be due to the shared feature of enhanced oxidative stress. This may inhibit parasite growth, enhance uptake of infected RBCs by spleen macrophages, and/or cause less cytoadherence of the infected cells to capillary endothelium. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Laboratory of Red Blood Cell Diagnostics
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Hemoglobin | Year: 2014

More than 20,000 blood samples of individuals living in The Netherlands and suspected of hemolytic anemia or diabetes were analyzed by high resolution cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Besides common disease-related hemoglobins (Hbs), rare variants were also detected. The variant Hbs were retrospectively analyzed by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and by isoelectric focusing (IEF). For unambiguous identification, the globin genes were sequenced. Most of the 80 Hb variants detected by initial screening on HPLC were also separated by capillary electrophoresis (CE), but a few variants were only detectable with one of these methods. Some variants were unstable, had thalassemic properties or increased oxygen affinity, and some interfered with Hb A2 measurement, detection of sickle cell Hb or Hb A1c quantification. Two of the six novel variants, Hb Enschede (HBA2: c.308G > A, p.Ser103Asn) and Hb Weesp (HBA1: c.301C > T, p.Leu101Phe), had no clinical consequences. In contrast, two others appeared clinically significant: Hb Ede (HBB: c.53A > T, p.Lys18Met) caused thalassemia and Hb Waterland (HBB: c.428C > T, pAla143Val) was related to mild polycytemia. Hb A2-Venlo (HBD: c.193G > A, p.Gly65Ser) and Hb A2-Rotterdam (HBD: c.38A > C, p.Asn13Thr) interfered with Hb A2 quantification. This survey shows that HPLC analysis followed by globin gene sequencing of rare variants is an effective method to reveal Hb variants.


PubMed | University of Amsterdam and Laboratory of Red Blood Cell Diagnostics
Type: | Journal: Free radical biology & medicine | Year: 2014

Red blood cells (RBCs) contain large amounts of iron and operate in highly oxygenated tissues. As a result, these cells encounter a continuous oxidative stress. Protective mechanisms against oxidation include prevention of formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), scavenging of various forms of ROS, and repair of oxidized cellular contents. In general, a partial defect in any of these systems can harm RBCs and promote senescence, but is without chronic hemolytic complaints. In this review we summarize the often rare inborn defects that interfere with the various protective mechanisms present in RBCs. NADPH is the main source of reduction equivalents in RBCs, used by most of the protective systems. When NADPH becomes limiting, red cells are prone to being damaged. In many of the severe RBC enzyme deficiencies, a lack of protective enzyme activity is frustrating erythropoiesis or is not restricted to RBCs. Common hereditary RBC disorders, such as thalassemia, sickle-cell trait, and unstable hemoglobins, give rise to increased oxidative stress caused by free heme and iron generated from hemoglobin. The beneficial effect of thalassemia minor, sickle-cell trait, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency on survival of malaria infection may well be due to the shared feature of enhanced oxidative stress. This may inhibit parasite growth, enhance uptake of infected RBCs by spleen macrophages, and/or cause less cytoadherence of the infected cells to capillary endothelium.

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