Baltimore, MD, United States
Baltimore, MD, United States

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Gravina G.L.,Laboratory of Radiobiology | Gravina G.L.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Marampon F.,Laboratory of Radiobiology | Mancini A.,University of L'Aquila | And 8 more authors.
Endocrine-Related Cancer | Year: 2013

Aberrant activation or 'reactivation' of androgen receptor (AR) during androgen ablation therapy shows a potential cause for the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer. This study tested the hypothesis that PXD101, a potent pan histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, may prevent onset of castration-resistant phenotype and potentiate hormonal therapy. A panel of human prostate cancer cells with graded castration-resistant phenotype and in vivo models were used to verify this hypothesis. In this report, we demonstrated that hormonal manipulation favors the onset of castration-resistant phenotype increasing HDAC expression and activity as well as modulating expression and activity of AR, EGFR, HER2, and Akt. Consistent with these observations, the functional knockdown of HDACs by PXD101 prevented the onset of castration-resistant phenotype with a significant downregulation of AR, EGFR, HER2, and Akt expression/activity. The dysregulation of functional cooperation between HDAC6 with hsp90, on the one hand, and between GSK-3β with CRM1, on the other hand, may explain the biological effects of PXD101. In this regard, the HDAC6 silencing or the functional knockdown of hsp90 by 17AAG resulted in the selective downregulation of AR, EGFR, HER2, and Akt expression/activity, while the decreased phosphorylation of GSK-3β mediated by PXD101 increased the nuclear expression of CRM1, which in turn modified the AR and survivin recycling with increased caspase 3 activity. HDAC inhibitors retain the ability to prevent the onset of castration-resistant phenotype and, therefore, merit clinical. Copyright © 2013 Society for Endocrinology.

Williams J.R.,Loma Linda University | Zhang Y.,Laboratory of Radiobiology | Zhou H.,Laboratory of Radiobiology | Gridley D.S.,Loma Linda University | And 4 more authors.
Radiation Oncology | Year: 2010

Background: We have previously shown that in vitro radiosensitivity of human tumor cells segregate non-randomly into a limited number of groups. Each group associates with a specific genotype. However we have also shown that abrogation of a single gene (p21) in a human tumor cell unexpectedly sensitized xenograft tumors comprised of these cells to radiotherapy while not affecting in vitro cellular radiosensitivity. Therefore in vitro assays alone cannot predict tumor response to radiotherapy.In the current work, we measure in vitro radiosensitivity and in vivo response of their xenograft tumors in a series of human tumor lines that represent the range of radiosensitivity observed in human tumor cells. We also measure response of their xenograft tumors to different radiotherapy protocols. We reduce these data into a simple analytical structure that defines the relationship between tumor response and total dose based on two coefficients that are specific to tumor cell genotype, fraction size and total dose.Methods: We assayed in vitro survival patterns in eight tumor cell lines that vary in cellular radiosensitivity and genotype. We also measured response of their xenograft tumors to four radiotherapy protocols: 8 × 2 Gy; 2 × 5Gy, 1 × 7.5 Gy and 1 × 15 Gy. We analyze these data to derive coefficients that describe both in vitro and in vivo responses.Results: Response of xenografts comprised of human tumor cells to different radiotherapy protocols can be reduced to only two coefficients that represent 1) total cells killed as measured in vitro 2) additional response in vivo not predicted by cell killing. These coefficients segregate with specific genotypes including those most frequently observed in human tumors in the clinic. Coefficients that describe in vitro and in vivo mechanisms can predict tumor response to any radiation protocol based on tumor cell genotype, fraction-size and total dose.Conclusions: We establish an analytical structure that predicts tumor response to radiotherapy based on coefficients that represent in vitro and in vivo responses. Both coefficients are dependent on tumor cell genotype and fraction-size. We identify a novel previously unreported mechanism that sensitizes tumors in vivo; this sensitization varies with tumor cell genotype and fraction size. © 2010 Williams et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Williams J.R.,Loma Linda University | Williams J.R.,Laboratory of Radiobiology | Zhang Y.,Laboratory of Radiobiology | Zhou H.,Laboratory of Radiobiology | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Biology | Year: 2011

Purpose: Our aim was to define dose-dependent and genotype-dependent components of radiosensitivity by resolving patterns of radiation-induced clonal inactivation into specific responses. Methods: In a set of 10 tumour cells with varying expression of radiosensitivity and genotype, we identified doses at which all tumour cells change in their rate of clonogenic inactivation. We tested intervening dose-segments as to whether inactivation was constant, expressing inactivation as a log-linear function of dose. We compared these segments to components proposed in the Hit-target (HT) model and the Linear-quadratic (LQ) model. Temporal changes in redistribution in cell-cycle prevalence and apoptosis were examined as essential components of cellular radiosensitivity. Results: We identified four distinct responses induced sequentially in all cells independent of genotype. Rates of inactivation within each response varied with expression of genotype and identified: (i) A hypersensitive component H (0.0-0.10 Gy); (ii) a resistant component R (0.1-0.2 Gy); (iii) an induced repair response alpha* (0.2 Gy and higher); and (iv) a more sensitive component omega* (3.0 Gy and higher). The H, alpha* and omega* components were fitted well by log-linear patterns, the R response did not. Conclusions: Four distinct, sequentially-induced responses comprise cellular radiosensitivity. H and R responses are associated with low dose hyper-radiosensitivity and early apoptosis, while the alpha* and omega* responses share characteristics of the HT and LQ models and are associated with post-repair apoptosis. Radiation induces these four responses at the same doses in all cells, but the rate of inactivation over each response depends on genotype. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

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