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Zhou J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhou J.,China Agricultural University | Guan D.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhou B.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural science | And 12 more authors.
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2015

Although the effects of chemical fertilization management on microbial communities in soils have been well studied, few studies have examined such impacts of long-term chemical fertilizations on the microbial community in black soils common to northeast China. We applied high-throughput pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of the 16S rRNA gene to investigate bacterial communities in a long-term fertilizer experiment started in 1980. The following fertilizer treatments were compared with control plots (no fertilizer): N1 (low nitrogen fertilizer), N2 (high nitrogen fertilizer), N1P1 (low nitrogen plus low phosphorus fertilizers) and N2P2 (high nitrogen plus high phosphorus fertilizers). All fertilization treatments resulted in decreases in soil pH and increases in wheat yield and concentrations of total nitrogen, organic matter and KCl-extractable NO3- and NH4+. Fertilization also led to a significant decrease in total 16S rRNA gene abundance and bacterial diversity. The phyla Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria dominated in all fertilized treatments. There was an increase in relative abundance of Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, TM7 and Verrucomicrobia across all fertilized treatments compared to unfertilized controls, whereas phyla Acidobacteria and Nitrospirae decreased. The bacterial communities in unfertilized controls and lower-mineral fertilizers (i.e. N1 and N1P1) were predominantly composed of Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, and separated from the communities where more concentrated fertilizer regimes were used (i.e. N2 and N2P2) based on principal coordinates analysis. Soil pH and NO3- concentration appeared to be the most important factors in shaping bacterial communities. Our findings suggested that long-term inorganic fertilizer regimes reduced the biodiversity and abundance of bacteria. The influence of more concentrated fertilizer treatments was greater than that of lower concentrations. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Ding J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Jiang X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Jiang X.,Laboratory of Quality and Safety Risk Assessment for Microbial Products Beijing | Ma M.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 10 more authors.
Applied Soil Ecology | Year: 2016

Black soil is common in northeast China and plays an important role in Chinese crop production. However, in the past three decades, inappropriate use of fertilizer has caused a sequence of agroecological issues. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of long-term fertilizer on the microbial communities in black soil. The soil was subjected to four fertilization regimes: without fertilizer (CK); manure (M); nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium inorganic fertilizer (NPK); and inorganic fertilizers with manure (MNPK). The soil pH was decreased by inorganic fertilizers and increased by manure. Quantitative PCR analysis of microbial community size and Illumina platform-based analysis of the V4 16S rRNA gene region were performed to characterize soil microbial abundance and to compare community structure and diversity. Microbial community size was enhanced by the incorporation of inorganic fertilizer and manure. Microbial diversity was decreased by inorganic fertilizer and increased by the incorporation of inorganic fertilizer and manure. The predominate phyla in all samples were Proteobacteria (29.39-33.48%), Acidobacteria (13.14-16.25%) and Actinobacteria (9.32-10.77%). The relative abundance of different classes significantly differed among the different treatments, especially MNPK and NPK. Acidobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria were relatively stable in organic fertilizer treated soil. Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria were sensitive to all the fertilization regimes. Comparatively, Spartobacteria was stable in response to fertilization practices. Principal coordinate analysis indicated that microbial communities were primarily clustered into three groups: CK and M were clustered together; MNPK was improved by manure and separated from NPK. Shannon and Simpson indexes were significantly correlated with soil pH and the concentrations of available phosphorus and total phosphorus. Redundancy analysis indicates that microbial communities were closely positively correlated with soil nitrate nitrogen concentration (P = 0.002) and pH (P = 0.002). These results indicate that inorganic fertilizer plus manure increased microbial size and diversity and changed microbial composition. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Chang W.,Shandong Agricultural University | Chang W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ma M.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ma M.,Laboratory of Quality and Safety Risk Assessment for Microbial Products Beijing | And 7 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied and Environmental Biology | Year: 2014

In order to reveal the yield-increasing mechanism of Paenibacillus mucilaginosus, a field experiment with different fertilizing modes was carried out. Four different treatments were designed, including T1 (control), T2 (no fertilizer but P. mucilaginosus 3016), T3 (P. mucilaginosus 3016 plus half of the regular fertilizer dose), and T4 (the regular fertilizer dose). The effects on peanut growth and soil microbiological characteristics were analyzed. The results showed that peanut characters under T3 were the best. The pod number per peanut plant, pod weight per peanut plant, hundred-pod weight, seed-producing rate and yield were higher under T3 than under T1 by 27.1%, 22.9%, 7.8%, 2.4% and 10.4%, respectively. The nutrient content of kernels, stems and leaves of peanut under T3 was equal or even a little more than that under T4. The contents of K were up to 0.55% in kernels and 1.19% in stems/leaves. Meanwhile, microbial population and soil urease activity under T3 were significantly high than that of T1 (P < 0.05), which could be helpful in improving soil quantity, microbial community structure, function and fertility. In conclusion, P. mucilaginosus 3016 plus half of the regular fertilizer dose can be an optimal fertilizing measure, not only increasing peanut yield, but also improving soil microbiological characteristics.

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