Hernandez-Sanchez C.,University of La Laguna |
Luis G.,University of La Laguna |
Moreno I.,University of Seville |
Camean A.,University of Seville |
And 6 more authors.
Talanta | Year: 2012
Mangoes of uniform genetics (Lippens variety) cultivated in the Gomera Island (Canary Islands) by conventional and organic farming were used to analyze the mineral content in order to differentiate crops cultivated in the same geographic area by the cultivation practices. Farming differences as well as soil differences may be reflected in the mineral content of the mangoes cultivated in these extensions. Concentration metal profiles consisting of the content of Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni and Zn in mangoes were obtained by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Pattern recognition classification procedures were applied for discriminating purposes. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) allows to a classification performance of about 73% and support vector machines (SVM) found up to a 93% of prediction ability. The classification success when applying support vector machines techniques is due to their ability for modeling non-linear class boundaries. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Whelan J.,Amsterdam Public Health Service GGD |
Sonder G.J.,Amsterdam Public Health Service GGD |
Bovee L.,Amsterdam Public Health Service GGD |
Speksnijder A.,Laboratory of Public Health |
van den Hoek A.,Amsterdam Public Health Service GGD
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
Background:The secondary attack rate of hepatitis A virus (HAV) among contacts of cases is up to 50%. Historically, contacts were offered immunoglobulin (IG, a human derived blood product) as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Amid safety concerns about IG, HAV vaccine is increasingly recommended instead. Public health authorities' recommendations differ, particularly for healthy contacts ≥40 years old, where vaccine efficacy data is limited. We evaluated routine use of HAV vaccine as an alternative to immunoglobulin in PEP, in those considered at low risk of severe infection in the Netherlands.Methods:Household contacts of acute HAV cases notified in Amsterdam (2004-2012) were invited ≤14 days post-exposure, for baseline anti-HAV testing and PEP according to national guidelines: immunoglobulin if at risk of severe infection, or hepatitis A vaccine if healthy and at low risk (aged <30, or, 30-50 years and vaccinated <8 days post-exposure). Incidence of laboratory confirmed secondary infection in susceptible contacts was assessed 4-8 weeks post-exposure. In a vaccinated subgroup, relative risk (RR) of secondary infection with estimated using Poisson regression.Results:Of 547 contacts identified, 191 were susceptible to HAV. Per-protocol, 167 (87%) were vaccinated (mean:6.7 days post-exposure, standard deviation(sd)=3.3) and 24 (13%) were given immunoglobulin (mean:9.7 days post-exposure, sd=2.8). At follow-up testing, 8/112 (7%) had a laboratory confirmed infection of whom 7 were symptomatic. All secondary infections occurred in vaccinated contacts, and half were >40 years of age. In healthy contacts vaccinated per-protocol ≤8 days post-exposure, RRref. ≤15 years of secondary infection in those >40 years was 12.0 (95%CI:1.3-106.7).Conclusions:Timely administration of HAV vaccine in PEP was feasible and the secondary attack rate was low in those <40 years. Internationally, upper age-limits for post-exposure vaccination vary. Pending larger studies, immunoglobulin should be considered PEP of choice in people >40 years of age and those vulnerable to severe disease. © 2013 Whelan et al.
van den Berg C.H.B.S.,Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam |
Grady B.P.X.,Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam |
van de Laar T.,Laboratory of Public Health |
van de Laar T.,VU University Amsterdam |
And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011
Background & Aims: Since acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is often asymptomatic, it is difficult to examine the rate and determinants of spontaneous clearance. Consequently, these studies are subject to bias, which can potentially lead to biased rates of viral clearance and risk estimates. We evaluated determinants of spontaneous HCV clearance among HCV seroconverters identified in a unique community-based cohort. Methods: Subjects were 106 drug users with documented dates of HCV seroconversion from the Amsterdam Cohort Study. Logistic regression was used to examine sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, viral and host determinants, measured around acute infection, of HCV clearance. Results: The spontaneous viral clearance rate was 33.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 24.2-42.8). In univariate analyses female sex and fever were significantly associated with spontaneous clearance. The favorable genotypes for rs12979860 (CC) and rs8099917 (TT) were associated with spontaneous clearance, although borderline significant. In multivariate analysis, females with the favorable genotype for rs12979860 (CC) had an increased odds to spontaneously clear HCV infection (adjustedOR 6.62, 95% 2.69-26.13), whereas females with the unfavorable genotype were as likely as men with the favorable and unfavorable genotype to clear HCV. Chronic Hepatitis B infection and absence of HIV coinfection around HCV seroconversion also favor HCV clearance. Conclusions: This study shows that co-infection with HIV and HBV and genetic variation in the IL28B region play an important role in spontaneous clearance of HCV. Our findings suggest a possible synergistic interaction between female sex and IL28B in spontaneous clearance of HCV. © 2011 van den Berg et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
van der Knaap N.,Public Health Service |
van der Knaap N.,University of Amsterdam |
Grady B.P.X.,Public Health Service |
Schim van der Loeff M.F.,Public Health Service |
And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
Background and Aims: To examine whether drug users (DU) in the Amsterdam Cohort Study (ACS) are still at risk for HIV, we studied trends in HIV incidence and injecting and sexual risk behaviour from 1986 to 2011. Methods: The ACS is an open, prospective cohort study on HIV. Calendar time trends in HIV incidence were modelled using Poisson regression. Trends in risk behaviour were modelled via generalized estimating equations. In 2010, a screening for STI (chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis) was performed. Determinants of unprotected sex were studied using logistic regression analysis. Results: The HIV incidence among 1298 participants of the ACS with a total follow-up of 12,921 person-years (PY) declined from 6.0/100 PY (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.2-11.1) in 1986 to less than 1/100 PY from 1997 onwards. Both injection and sexual risk behaviour declined significantly over time. Out of 197 participants screened for STI in 2010-2011, median age 49 years (IQR 43-59), only 5 (2.5%) were diagnosed with an STI. In multivariable analysis, having a steady partner (aOR 4.1, 95% CI 1.6-10.5) was associated with unprotected sex. HIV-infected participants were less likely to report unprotected sex (aOR 0.07, 95% CI 0.02-0.37). Conclusions: HIV incidence and injection risk behaviour declined from 1986 onwards. STI prevalence is low; unprotected sex is associated with steady partners and is less common among HIV-infected participants. These findings indicate a low transmission risk of HIV and STI, which suggests that DU do not play a significant role in the current spread of HIV in Amsterdam. © 2013 van der Knaap et al.
PubMed | Laboratory of Public Health, Cruces University Hospital, Basurto University Hospital, Biodonostia Research Institute and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2015
Asthma is a highly prevalent chronic inflammatory disease characterised by reversible airflow obstruction and hyperreactivity and inflammation of the airways. Factors that cause and/or trigger asthma attacks include host-related factors (genetic predisposition, obesity and sex) and environmental factors (allergens, infections, occupational sensitisation, smoking status, pollution and diet).To describe the epidemiology of asthma exacerbations (AEs) in the Basque Country and to explore its relationship with potentially associated environmental variables. We studied a total of 31,579 emergency department (ED) visits and 28,189 hospitalisations due to asthma. We describe the trends, incidence, seasonality and the influence of age and sex, as well as of exposure to NO2 , CO, PM, O3 , and pollen, temperature, relative humidity and flu status. We calculated the Pearsons R correlation coefficient for the study variables.The incidence was 486 and 88.9 cases per 100,000 people for ED visits and hospitalisations, respectively. Slightly over half (53.5%) of the ED cases were male, while females represented 62.6% of the hospital admissions. Hospitalisations are tending to decrease in children and increase in over 64-year-olds. Peaks in cases occur at the beginning of autumn in children and in winter in adults. AEs were correlated positively with exposure to NO2 , CO and to the influenza virus and negatively with temperature and exposure to O3 . These relationships vary, however, with age and season.Rates of hospitalisation for AEs and trends in these rates over time are different in adults and children with the patterns varying by sex, season and environmental conditions.
Ajmi I.,French National Center for Scientific Research |
Zgaya H.,Laboratory of Public Health |
Hammadi S.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2013
The Emergency Department (ED) in a hospital, as its name implies, is a facility to be utilized by those who require emergency medical care. This paper introduces the longitudinal organization of the patient handling" in the Pediatric Emergency called the "Pediatric Emergency Path". This work discusses the usability of the workflow approach in order to design the patient path in the Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) in order to thwart the care complexity scheme. The goal is to optimize these paths to improve the quality of the patient handling while mastering the wait time. The development of this model was based on accurate visits made in the PED of the Regional University Hospital Center (CHRU) of Lille (France). This modeling, which has to represent most faithfully possible the reality of the PED of CHRU of Lille, is necessary. It must be enough retailed to produce an analysis allowing to identify the dysfunctions of the PED and also to propose and to estimate prevention indicators of tensions. Our survey is integrated into the French National Research Agency project, titled: "Hospital: optimization, simulation and avoidance of strain" (ANR HOST). © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013.
PubMed | Chinese University of Hong Kong, Laboratory of Public Health, Tuberculosis Prevention and Treatment Center and Center for Health Protection
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society | Year: 2015
Between 2009 and 2012, 22 adolescents of age 15-20 from a day school in Macau were diagnosed with tuberculosis. Detection of multiple molecular clusters may suggest the presence of concurrent outbreaks, and could reflect also ongoing transmissions in the community. Careful interpretation of molecular epidemiology data is crucial in contact investigations.
Takumi K.,National Institute of Public Health and Environment RIVM |
Swart A.,National Institute of Public Health and Environment RIVM |
Mank T.,Laboratory of Public Health |
Lasek-Nesselquist E.,Josephine Bay Paul Center for Comparative Evolution and Molecular Biology |
And 3 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2012
Background: Giardia duodenalis is a common protozoan parasite of humans and animals. Genetic characterization of single loci indicates the existence of eight groups called assemblages, which differ in their host distribution. Molecular analyses challenged the idea that G. duodenalis is a strictly clonal diplomonad by providing evidence of recombination within and between assemblages. Particularly, inter-assemblage recombination events would complicate the interpretation of multi-locus genotyping data from field isolates: where is a host infected with multiple Giardia genotypes or with a single, recombined Giardia genotype. Methods: Population genetic analyses on the single and multiple-locus level on an extensive dataset of G. duodenalis isolates from humans and animals were performed. Results: Our analyses indicate that recombination between isolates from different assemblages are apparently very rare or absent in the natural population of Giardia duodenalis. At the multi-locus level, our statistical analyses are more congruent with clonal reproduction and can equally well be explained with the presence of multiple G. duodenalis genotypes within one field isolate. Conclusions: We conclude that recombination between G. duodenalis assemblages is either very rare or absent. Recombination between genotypes from the same assemblage and genetic exchange between the nuclei of a single cyst needs further investigation. © 2012 Takumi et al.
Van De Laar T.J.W.,Laboratory of Public Health |
Van De Laar T.J.W.,University of Amsterdam |
Paxton W.A.,University of Amsterdam |
Zorgdrager F.,University of Amsterdam |
And 2 more authors.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases | Year: 2011
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) has recently emerged as sexual transmitted infection among (human immunodeficiency virus) HIV-positive but not HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM). We present 4 case reports showing that HIV-infection is not an absolute prerequisite for sexual HCV transmission in MSM. HIV-negative MSM with ulcerative sexual transmitted infection, those who engage in rough sexual practices or report a HCV-positive sexual partner, should be regularly screened for HCV. Copyright © 2011 American Sexually Transmitted Diseases All rights reserved.
PubMed | Laboratory of Public Health
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Sexually transmitted diseases | Year: 2011
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) has recently emerged as sexual transmitted infection among (human immunodeficiency virus) HIV-positive but not HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM). We present 4 case reports showing that HIV-infection is not an absolute prerequisite for sexual HCV transmission in MSM. HIV-negative MSM with ulcerative sexual transmitted infection, those who engage in rough sexual practices or report a HCV-positive sexual partner, should be regularly screened for HCV.