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Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain

de Ory F.,Institute of Health Carlos III | de Ory F.,CIBER ISCIII | Guisasola E.,Institute of Health Carlos III | Guisasola E.,CIBER ISCIII | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis | Year: 2015

Background: Immunoblot (IB) techniques using different Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antigens have been applied for detecting specific antibodies, making possible to obtain EBV seroprofiles in a single determination. The aim of this study was to evaluate a commercial IB for the detection of EBV-specific IgG (Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany). Methods: A total of 117 samples classified as EBV primary recent infections (n = 70), past infections (n = 29), or not infected (n = 18) have been used. The samples were characterized by immunofluorescence, by testing EBV capsid antigens IgM and IgG (using indirect approaches) and EBV nuclear antigen (by anticomplement technique; Meridian Bioscience Inc.). Results: Using the cut-off value as defined by the IB manufacturer, the concordance, relative sensitivity, and relative specificity were 85.5 (100/117), 94.3% (66/70), and 72.3% (34/47), respectively. If a corrected cut-off value was considered to classify the samples, the corresponding corrected figures were 89.7, 88.6, and 91.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Being a useful serological diagnostic tool, IB for testing EBV IgG seems to be an adequate approach to define EBV seroprofiles. However, efforts to better define the cut-off value should be made in order to improve the performance of the assay in evaluation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Ajmi I.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Zgaya H.,Laboratory of Public Health | Hammadi S.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2013

The Emergency Department (ED) in a hospital, as its name implies, is a facility to be utilized by those who require emergency medical care. This paper introduces the longitudinal organization of the patient handling" in the Pediatric Emergency called the "Pediatric Emergency Path". This work discusses the usability of the workflow approach in order to design the patient path in the Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) in order to thwart the care complexity scheme. The goal is to optimize these paths to improve the quality of the patient handling while mastering the wait time. The development of this model was based on accurate visits made in the PED of the Regional University Hospital Center (CHRU) of Lille (France). This modeling, which has to represent most faithfully possible the reality of the PED of CHRU of Lille, is necessary. It must be enough retailed to produce an analysis allowing to identify the dysfunctions of the PED and also to propose and to estimate prevention indicators of tensions. Our survey is integrated into the French National Research Agency project, titled: "Hospital: optimization, simulation and avoidance of strain" (ANR HOST). © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013. Source

Whelan J.,Amsterdam Public Health Service GGD | Sonder G.J.,Amsterdam Public Health Service GGD | Bovee L.,Amsterdam Public Health Service GGD | Speksnijder A.,Laboratory of Public Health | van den Hoek A.,Amsterdam Public Health Service GGD
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:The secondary attack rate of hepatitis A virus (HAV) among contacts of cases is up to 50%. Historically, contacts were offered immunoglobulin (IG, a human derived blood product) as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Amid safety concerns about IG, HAV vaccine is increasingly recommended instead. Public health authorities' recommendations differ, particularly for healthy contacts ≥40 years old, where vaccine efficacy data is limited. We evaluated routine use of HAV vaccine as an alternative to immunoglobulin in PEP, in those considered at low risk of severe infection in the Netherlands.Methods:Household contacts of acute HAV cases notified in Amsterdam (2004-2012) were invited ≤14 days post-exposure, for baseline anti-HAV testing and PEP according to national guidelines: immunoglobulin if at risk of severe infection, or hepatitis A vaccine if healthy and at low risk (aged <30, or, 30-50 years and vaccinated <8 days post-exposure). Incidence of laboratory confirmed secondary infection in susceptible contacts was assessed 4-8 weeks post-exposure. In a vaccinated subgroup, relative risk (RR) of secondary infection with estimated using Poisson regression.Results:Of 547 contacts identified, 191 were susceptible to HAV. Per-protocol, 167 (87%) were vaccinated (mean:6.7 days post-exposure, standard deviation(sd)=3.3) and 24 (13%) were given immunoglobulin (mean:9.7 days post-exposure, sd=2.8). At follow-up testing, 8/112 (7%) had a laboratory confirmed infection of whom 7 were symptomatic. All secondary infections occurred in vaccinated contacts, and half were >40 years of age. In healthy contacts vaccinated per-protocol ≤8 days post-exposure, RRref. ≤15 years of secondary infection in those >40 years was 12.0 (95%CI:1.3-106.7).Conclusions:Timely administration of HAV vaccine in PEP was feasible and the secondary attack rate was low in those <40 years. Internationally, upper age-limits for post-exposure vaccination vary. Pending larger studies, immunoglobulin should be considered PEP of choice in people >40 years of age and those vulnerable to severe disease. © 2013 Whelan et al. Source

Takumi K.,National Institute of Public Health and Environment RIVM | Swart A.,National Institute of Public Health and Environment RIVM | Mank T.,Laboratory of Public Health | Lasek-Nesselquist E.,Josephine Bay Paul Center for Comparative Evolution and Molecular Biology | And 3 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2012

Background: Giardia duodenalis is a common protozoan parasite of humans and animals. Genetic characterization of single loci indicates the existence of eight groups called assemblages, which differ in their host distribution. Molecular analyses challenged the idea that G. duodenalis is a strictly clonal diplomonad by providing evidence of recombination within and between assemblages. Particularly, inter-assemblage recombination events would complicate the interpretation of multi-locus genotyping data from field isolates: where is a host infected with multiple Giardia genotypes or with a single, recombined Giardia genotype. Methods: Population genetic analyses on the single and multiple-locus level on an extensive dataset of G. duodenalis isolates from humans and animals were performed. Results: Our analyses indicate that recombination between isolates from different assemblages are apparently very rare or absent in the natural population of Giardia duodenalis. At the multi-locus level, our statistical analyses are more congruent with clonal reproduction and can equally well be explained with the presence of multiple G. duodenalis genotypes within one field isolate. Conclusions: We conclude that recombination between G. duodenalis assemblages is either very rare or absent. Recombination between genotypes from the same assemblage and genetic exchange between the nuclei of a single cyst needs further investigation. © 2012 Takumi et al. Source

van der Knaap N.,Cluster of Infectious Diseases | van der Knaap N.,University of Amsterdam | Grady B.P.X.,Cluster of Infectious Diseases | Schim van der Loeff M.F.,Cluster of Infectious Diseases | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background and Aims: To examine whether drug users (DU) in the Amsterdam Cohort Study (ACS) are still at risk for HIV, we studied trends in HIV incidence and injecting and sexual risk behaviour from 1986 to 2011. Methods: The ACS is an open, prospective cohort study on HIV. Calendar time trends in HIV incidence were modelled using Poisson regression. Trends in risk behaviour were modelled via generalized estimating equations. In 2010, a screening for STI (chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis) was performed. Determinants of unprotected sex were studied using logistic regression analysis. Results: The HIV incidence among 1298 participants of the ACS with a total follow-up of 12,921 person-years (PY) declined from 6.0/100 PY (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.2-11.1) in 1986 to less than 1/100 PY from 1997 onwards. Both injection and sexual risk behaviour declined significantly over time. Out of 197 participants screened for STI in 2010-2011, median age 49 years (IQR 43-59), only 5 (2.5%) were diagnosed with an STI. In multivariable analysis, having a steady partner (aOR 4.1, 95% CI 1.6-10.5) was associated with unprotected sex. HIV-infected participants were less likely to report unprotected sex (aOR 0.07, 95% CI 0.02-0.37). Conclusions: HIV incidence and injection risk behaviour declined from 1986 onwards. STI prevalence is low; unprotected sex is associated with steady partners and is less common among HIV-infected participants. These findings indicate a low transmission risk of HIV and STI, which suggests that DU do not play a significant role in the current spread of HIV in Amsterdam. © 2013 van der Knaap et al. Source

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