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Borrego S.,Laboratory of Preventive Conservation | Perdomo I.,Laboratory of Preventive Conservation
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2016

The quality of the indoor air can provide very useful information for the artwork conservation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial concentration inside six document repositories of the National Archive of the Republic of Cuba in two months of 1 year. The repositories are large, high, and have a natural cross-ventilation system. The microbial sampling was done in July 2010 (summer or rainy month) and February 2011 (winter or dry month) using the SAS Super 100 biocollector at 100 L/min. An appropriate selective culture media were used to isolate fungi and bacteria. A high total microbial concentration on the north side of the building in two studied months was observed. The fungal concentrations were significantly higher in July 2010 in all repositories, while the bacterial concentrations were significantly higher mostly in February 2011 only in repositories located on the first and second floor of the building. Eight fungal genera in the indoor air of all environments were isolated. Regardless of the side of the analyzed building, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium were the predominant genera. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were the species isolated in almost all of the analyzed repositories in the studied months. Gram-positive bacteria prevailed among bacterial groups isolated from indoor air repositories, and some percentages corresponded to the genera Bacillus and Streptomyces. In Cuba, the temperature and relative humidity are high during the whole year but the natural ventilation plays an important role in retarding microbial growth on materials. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Borrego S.,Laboratory of Preventive Conservation | Perdomo I.,Laboratory of Preventive Conservation
Aerobiologia | Year: 2012

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the microbial prevalence inside six repositories of the National Archive of the Republic of Cuba in 2 months of the year and to examine some of the physiological features of fungi isolated in order to evaluate their potential for biodeterioration. The microbiological sampling was conducted in February and September using a slit impactor as air sampler. Appropriate selective culture media were used to isolate fungi and bacteria. Temperature and relative humidity were measured during the samplings. The cellulolytic activity and the production of acids and pigments of the fungi isolated were qualitatively determined. Total viable microbiota and bacteria concentrations were greater in February while the fungal concentration was higher in September. Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Curvularia and Alternaria were the predominant fungal genera in February while Cladosporium prevailed in September, although Fusarium, Mucor and Neurospora genera were also isolated in this month. The fungi isolated were capable of degrading cellulose and excreting pigments and acids. The Gram-positive bacteria group prevailed in the air and Corynebacterium, Streptomyces, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Enterobacter and Serratia were some of the genera identified. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Borrego S.,Laboratory of Preventive Conservation | Guiamet P.,CONICET | Gomez de Saravia S.,CONICET | Batistini P.,CONICET | And 3 more authors.
International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation | Year: 2010

The objectives of the paper were to evaluate the microbial prevalence inside the buildings of the Photographic Library of the National Archive of the Republic of Cuba (PLNARC) and of the Historical Archive of the Museum of La Plata (HAMP) and to estimate the levels of microbial contamination on photos stored in these repositories. We have also examined some of the physiological features of fungal and bacterial isolates in order to evaluate their potential for biodeterioration. A sedimentation method was used for the microbiological sampling of air, while sterile cotton swabs were used for sampling documents. Petri dishes with appropriate selective culture media were used to isolate fungi and bacteria. The cellulolytic, proteolytic, and amylolytic activities and the production of acids and pigments of the fungal isolates were qualitatively determined. The predominant fungal genera in the air of both institutions were Cladosporium and Penicillium, respectively, for PLNARC and HAMP. At both places, the prevalent bacterial isolates were Gram positive. Among the microbial isolates from photos, various fungal and bacterial isolates were capable of degrading starch and protein and also to excrete acids and pigments, which constitute a high potential risk for the biodeterioration of these documents. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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