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Borrego S.,Laboratory of Preventive Conservation | De Saravia S.G.,CONICET | De Saravia S.G.,National University of La Plata | Valdes O.,Laboratory of Preventive Conservation | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Conservation Science | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to evaluate the biocidal activity of essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. and L. M. Perry (nail) and Allium sativum L. (garlic) against different fungal species producing paper degradation and deterioration. Essential oils (EOs) were obtained from harvested plants in their natural habitat in Cuba, and were tested against the species Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium sp. which were isolated from archival indoor environments and documents with patrimonial value The biocidal activity was studied at different concentrations (70, 50, 25, 12.5 and 7.5%) using the agar diffusion method. The effect of extracts on paper alterations was studied through different techniques including determination of pH and number of copper and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations. EOs were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The determination of inhibition zones by the agar diffusion method of the tested EOs showed a moderate and/or positive effect. The study of the antifungal activity on paper ("in vivo") shows that both clove and garlic oils were potent biocides. Although the paper structure was not affected by EOs pure, some molecular damages were observed at lower concentrations across determinations of the pH and copper number.


Borrego S.,Laboratory of Preventive Conservation | Guiamet P.,CONICET | Gomez de Saravia S.,CONICET | Batistini P.,CONICET | And 3 more authors.
International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation | Year: 2010

The objectives of the paper were to evaluate the microbial prevalence inside the buildings of the Photographic Library of the National Archive of the Republic of Cuba (PLNARC) and of the Historical Archive of the Museum of La Plata (HAMP) and to estimate the levels of microbial contamination on photos stored in these repositories. We have also examined some of the physiological features of fungal and bacterial isolates in order to evaluate their potential for biodeterioration. A sedimentation method was used for the microbiological sampling of air, while sterile cotton swabs were used for sampling documents. Petri dishes with appropriate selective culture media were used to isolate fungi and bacteria. The cellulolytic, proteolytic, and amylolytic activities and the production of acids and pigments of the fungal isolates were qualitatively determined. The predominant fungal genera in the air of both institutions were Cladosporium and Penicillium, respectively, for PLNARC and HAMP. At both places, the prevalent bacterial isolates were Gram positive. Among the microbial isolates from photos, various fungal and bacterial isolates were capable of degrading starch and protein and also to excrete acids and pigments, which constitute a high potential risk for the biodeterioration of these documents. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Borrego S.,Laboratory of Preventive Conservation | Perdomo I.,Laboratory of Preventive Conservation
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2016

The quality of the indoor air can provide very useful information for the artwork conservation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial concentration inside six document repositories of the National Archive of the Republic of Cuba in two months of 1 year. The repositories are large, high, and have a natural cross-ventilation system. The microbial sampling was done in July 2010 (summer or rainy month) and February 2011 (winter or dry month) using the SAS Super 100 biocollector at 100 L/min. An appropriate selective culture media were used to isolate fungi and bacteria. A high total microbial concentration on the north side of the building in two studied months was observed. The fungal concentrations were significantly higher in July 2010 in all repositories, while the bacterial concentrations were significantly higher mostly in February 2011 only in repositories located on the first and second floor of the building. Eight fungal genera in the indoor air of all environments were isolated. Regardless of the side of the analyzed building, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium were the predominant genera. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were the species isolated in almost all of the analyzed repositories in the studied months. Gram-positive bacteria prevailed among bacterial groups isolated from indoor air repositories, and some percentages corresponded to the genera Bacillus and Streptomyces. In Cuba, the temperature and relative humidity are high during the whole year but the natural ventilation plays an important role in retarding microbial growth on materials. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Borrego S.,Laboratory of Preventive Conservation | Perdomo I.,Laboratory of Preventive Conservation
Aerobiologia | Year: 2012

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the microbial prevalence inside six repositories of the National Archive of the Republic of Cuba in 2 months of the year and to examine some of the physiological features of fungi isolated in order to evaluate their potential for biodeterioration. The microbiological sampling was conducted in February and September using a slit impactor as air sampler. Appropriate selective culture media were used to isolate fungi and bacteria. Temperature and relative humidity were measured during the samplings. The cellulolytic activity and the production of acids and pigments of the fungi isolated were qualitatively determined. Total viable microbiota and bacteria concentrations were greater in February while the fungal concentration was higher in September. Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Curvularia and Alternaria were the predominant fungal genera in February while Cladosporium prevailed in September, although Fusarium, Mucor and Neurospora genera were also isolated in this month. The fungi isolated were capable of degrading cellulose and excreting pigments and acids. The Gram-positive bacteria group prevailed in the air and Corynebacterium, Streptomyces, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Enterobacter and Serratia were some of the genera identified. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


PubMed | Laboratory of Preventive Conservation
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international | Year: 2016

The quality of the indoor air can provide very useful information for the artwork conservation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial concentration inside six document repositories of the National Archive of the Republic of Cuba in two months of 1 year. The repositories are large, high, and have a natural cross-ventilation system. The microbial sampling was done in July 2010 (summer or rainy month) and February 2011 (winter or dry month) using the SAS Super 100 biocollector at 100 L/min. An appropriate selective culture media were used to isolate fungi and bacteria. A high total microbial concentration on the north side of the building in two studied months was observed. The fungal concentrations were significantly higher in July 2010 in all repositories, while the bacterial concentrations were significantly higher mostly in February 2011 only in repositories located on the first and second floor of the building. Eight fungal genera in the indoor air of all environments were isolated. Regardless of the side of the analyzed building, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium were the predominant genera. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were the species isolated in almost all of the analyzed repositories in the studied months. Gram-positive bacteria prevailed among bacterial groups isolated from indoor air repositories, and some percentages corresponded to the genera Bacillus and Streptomyces. In Cuba, the temperature and relative humidity are high during the whole year but the natural ventilation plays an important role in retarding microbial growth on materials.


PubMed | Laboratory of Preventive Conservation
Type: | Journal: ISRN microbiology | Year: 2013

Documentary heritage is permanently subject to suffering from physical, chemical, and/or biological alterations. Biological deterioration by microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) causes undesirable changes on material properties. Microorganisms affect different organic, natural or synthetic substrates (cellulose, polycarbonates), metals, and compounds of optical and magnetic devices (CD, VHS). Paper made by vegetal fibers, functional additives (glue, optical polishers, consolidating agents), and inks with organic bindings are used as sources of nutrients. The environmental microorganisms that form the microbial charge of indoor air at repositories (archives, libraries) storing cultural heritage can deteriorate the different supports of heritage importance and affect human health as allergies and skin affections. The aims of this research were to study microbial contamination of the environment and its influence on biodeterioration by the biofilm formation and to analyze the relationship between environment microbiota and biofilm formation in materials stored at three archives in Argentina and in two repositories of the National Archive of the Republic of Cuba.


PubMed | Laboratory of Preventive Conservation
Type: | Journal: ISRN microbiology | Year: 2013

Natural products obtained from plants with biocidal activity represent an alternative and useful source in the control of biodeterioration of documentary heritage, without negative environmental and human impacts. In this work, we studied the antimicrobial activity of seven essential oils against microorganisms associated with the biodeterioration of documentary heritage. The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation. The antimicrobial activity was analyzed using the agar diffusion method against 4 strains of fungi and 6 bacterial strains isolated from repositories air and documents of the National Archive of the Republic of Cuba and the Historical Archive of the Museum of La Plata, Argentina. Anise and garlic oils showed the best antifungal activity at all concentrations studied, while oregano oil not only was effective against fungi tested but also prevented sporulation of them all. Orange sweet and laurel oils were ineffective against fungi. Clove, garlic, and oregano oils showed the highest antibacterial activity at 25% against Enterobacter agglomerans and Streptomyces sp., while only clove and oregano oils were effective against Bacillus sp. at all concentrations studied. This study has an important implication for the possible use of the natural products from plants in the control of biodeterioration of documentary heritage.

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