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Segalla S.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Pivetti S.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Todoerti K.,Laboratory of Pre Clinical and Translational Research | Chudzik M.A.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | And 12 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2015

Multiple myeloma, the second most frequent hematologic tumor after lymphomas, is an incurable cancer. Recent sequencing efforts have identified the ribonuclease DIS3 as one of the most frequently mutated genes in this disease. DIS3 represents the catalytic subunit of the exosome, a macromolecular complex central to the processing, maturation and surveillance of various RNAs. miRNAs are an evolutionarily conserved class of small noncoding RNAs, regulating gene expression at post-transcriptional level. Ribonucleases, including Drosha, Dicer and XRN2, are involved in the processing and stability of miRNAs. However, the role of DIS3 on the regulation of miRNAs remains largely unknown. Here we found that DIS3 regulates the levels of the tumor suppressor let-7 miRNAs without affecting other miRNA families. DIS3 facilitates the maturation of let-7 miRNAs by reducing in the cytoplasm the RNA stability of the pluripotency factor LIN28B, a inhibitor of let-7 processing. DIS3 inactivation, through the increase of LIN28B and the reduction of mature let-7, enhances the translation of let-7 targets such as MYC and RAS leading to enhanced tumorigenesis. Our study establishes that the ribonuclease DIS3, targeting LIN28B, sustains the maturation of let-7 miRNAs and suggests the increased translation of critical oncogenes as one of the biological outcomes of DIS3 inactivation. © 2015 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

Agriesti F.,University of Bologna | Agriesti F.,Laboratory of Pre Clinical and Translational Research | Roncarati D.,University of Bologna | Musiani F.,University of Bologna | And 9 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2014

Most transcriptional regulators bind nucleotide motifs in the major groove, although some are able to recognize molecular determinants conferred by the minor groove of DNA. Here we report a transcriptional commutator switch that exploits the alternative readout of grooves to mediate opposite output regulation for the same input signal. This mechanism accounts for the ability of the Helicobacter pylori Fur regulator to repress the expression of both iron-inducible and iron-repressible genes. When iron is scarce, Fur binds to DNA as a dimer, through the readout of thymine pairs in the major groove, repressing iron-inducible transcription (FeON). Conversely, on iron-repressible elements the metal ion acts as corepressor, inducing Fur multimerization with consequent minor groove readout of AT-rich inverted repeats (FeOFF). Our results provide first evidence for a novel regulatory paradigm, in which the discriminative readout of DNA grooves enables to toggle between the repression of genes in a mutually exclusive manner. © The Author(s) 2013.

Matassa D.S.,University of Naples Federico II | Agliarulo I.,University of Naples Federico II | Amoroso M.R.,University of Naples Federico II | Maddalena F.,Laboratory of Pre Clinical and Translational Research | And 8 more authors.
Molecular Oncology | Year: 2014

TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) is an HSP90 chaperone involved in stress protection and apoptosis in mitochondrial and extramitochondrial compartments. Remarkably, aberrant deregulation of TRAP1 function has been observed in several cancer types with potential new opportunities for therapeutic intervention in humans. Although previous studies by our group identified novel roles of TRAP1 in quality control of mitochondria-destined proteins through the attenuation of protein synthesis, molecular mechanisms are still largely unknown. To shed further light on the signaling pathways regulated by TRAP1 in the attenuation of protein synthesis, this study demonstrates that the entire pathway of cap-mediated translation is activated in cells following TRAP1 interference: consistently, expression and consequent phosphorylation of p70S6K and RSK1, two translation activating kinases, are increased upon TRAP1 silencing. Furthermore, we show that these regulatory functions affect the response to translational stress and cell migration in wound healing assays, processes involving both kinases. Notably, the regulatory mechanisms controlled by TRAP1 are conserved in colorectal cancer tissues, since an inverse correlation between TRAP1 and p70S6K expression is found in tumor tissues, thereby supporting the relevant role of TRAP1 translational regulation invivo. Taken as a whole, these new findings candidate TRAP1 network for new anti-cancer strategies aimed at targeting the translational/quality control machinery of tumor cells. © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

Quarato G.,University of Foggia | Quarato G.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | Scrima R.,University of Foggia | Agriesti F.,Laboratory of Pre Clinical and Translational Research | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2013

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection induces a state of oxidative stress more pronounced than that observed in many other inflammatory diseases. Here, we propose a temporal sequence of events in the HCV-infected cell whereby the primary alteration consists of a release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum, followed by uptake into mitochondria. This ensues successive mitochondrial dysfunction leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species and a progressive metabolic adaptive response. Evidence is provided for a positive feed-back mechanism between alterations of calcium and redox homeostasis. This likely involves deregulation of the mitochondrial permeability transition and induces progressive dysfunction of cellular bioenergetics. Pathogenetic implications of the model and new opportunities for therapeutic intervention are discussed. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Bioenergetic dysfunction, adaptation and therapy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Sisinni L.,Laboratory of Pre Clinical and Translational Research | Maddalena F.,Laboratory of Pre Clinical and Translational Research | Lettini G.,Laboratory of Pre Clinical and Translational Research | Condelli V.,Laboratory of Pre Clinical and Translational Research | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Oncology | Year: 2014

Adaptation to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress through the upregulation of the ER chaperone BiP/Grp78 favors resistance of cancer cells to anthracyclins. We recently demonstrated that the mitochondrial HSP90 chaperone TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) is also localized in the ER, where it is responsible for protection from ER stress and quality control on specific mitochondrial proteins contributing to its anti-apoptotic function and the regulation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Based on the evidence that Bip/Grp78 and TRAP1 are co-upregulated in about 50% of human breast carcinomas (BCs), and considering that the expression of TRAP1 is critical in favoring resistant phenotypes to different antitumor agents, we hypothesized that ER-associated TRAP1 is also favoring resistance to anthracyclins. Indeed, anthracyclins induce ER stress in BC cells and cross-resistance between ER stress agents and anthracyclins was observed in bortezomib- and anthracyclin-resistant cells. Several lines of evidence suggest a mechanistic link between the ER-stress protecting function of TRAP1 and resistance to anthracyclins: i) ER stress- and anthracyclin-resistant cell lines are characterized by the upregulation of TRAP1; ii) TRAP1 silencing in both drug-resistant cell models restored the sensitivity to bortezomib and anthracyclins; iii) the transfection of a TRAP1 deletion mutant, whose localization is restricted to the ER, in TRAP1 KD cells protected from apoptosis induced by anthracyclins; iv) the disruption of the ER-associated TRAP1/TBP7 pathway by a TBP7 dominant negative deletion mutant re-established drug sensitivity in drug-resistant cells. This process is likely mediated by the ability of TRAP1 to modulate the PERK pathway as TRAP1 KD cells failed to induce the phosphorylation of PERK in response to anthracyclins. Moreover, the downregulation of TRAP1 in combination with ER stress agents produced high cytotoxic effects in BC cells. These results suggest that ER-associated TRAP1 plays a role in protecting tumor cells against DNA damaging agents by modulating the PERK pathway.

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