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Belle C.,Federal University of Pelotas | Kulczynski S.M.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Kuhn P.R.,Mondai Experimental Station | Donini L.P.,Laboratory of Plant Pathology | Gomes C.B.,Laboratory of Plant Pathology
Revista Caatinga | Year: 2017

The objective of this work was to evaluate the response of sugarcane genotypes to Meloidogyne javanica and Pratylenchus zeae. Sugarcane seedlings of the genotypes RB985944, RB987932, RB877935, RB855156, RB935744, RB996961, RB925345, RB935581 and RB966928 obtained from tissue cultures and maintained in pots with sterilized soil in a greenhouse were inoculated with 5,000 eggs + secondstage juveniles of M. javanica or 1,600 of P. zeae per plant, using six replicates per treatment. Tomato (Rutgers) and sorghum (BRS506) plants were used as control and proof of viability of the inoculum for the M. javanica and P. zeae, respectively. The number of root-knot in the plants inoculated with M. javanica, final nematode population and reproduction factor (RF) of both nematodes were evaluated at 120 days after inoculation. The averages of the different variables were compared by the Scott-Knott's clustering test at 5%. The nematodes M. javanica and P. zeae showed RF>1.00 in all sugarcane genotypes assessed, however, different levels of susceptibility were found. The lowest reproduction of the nematodes was found in the genotypes RB008347, RB877935, RB975944 and RB987932 (M. javanica) and RB987932 and RB966928 (P. zeae). © 2016, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arid. All rights reserved.


Markakis E.A.,Institute of Olive Tree | Koubouris G.C.,Institute of Olive Tree | Sergentani C.K.,Institute of Olive Tree | Ligoxigakis E.K.,Laboratory of Plant Pathology
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2017

In the present study, four Greek (Agiorgitiko, Asyrtiko, Roditis and Xinomavro) and one international (Soultanina) grapevine cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) were screened for their resistance to Phaeomoniella chlamydospora. Artificial inoculation was carried out by drilling a hole into the trunk and injecting a concentrated conidial suspension into the vessels. Disease reactions were evaluated in an 87-day assessment period, on the basis of external symptoms (disease incidence, disease severity and mortality) and by calculating the relative areas under disease progress curves (relative AUDPC). The extension of vascular browning as well as the isolation ratio along the inoculated vine trunks were also taken into account as additional parameters for evaluating resistance. The results indicated that the resistance of grapevine cultivars to P. chlamydospora varied significantly. ‘Agiorgitiko’ and ‘Soultanina’ were susceptible, whereas ‘Asyrtiko’ and ‘Xinomavro’ were resistant; ‘Roditis’ showed an intermediate level of resistance. Cultivars’ resistance was mostly distinguished in terms of the extension of vascular browning and pathogen isolation ratio. On the contrary, the disease incidence, final disease severity, mortality and relative AUDPC provided less distinctive efficiency in resistance evaluation. The robust methodology presented here could be useful in rapid evaluation experiments for future screening programs to search and recognize natural resistant sources within grapevine genotypes against P. chlamydospora. © 2017 Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging


De Boevre M.,Ghent University | Jacxsens L.,Ghent University | Lachat C.,Ghent University | Lachat C.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | And 9 more authors.
Toxicology Letters | Year: 2013

In the present study, a quantitative dietary exposure assessment of mycotoxins and their masked forms was conducted on a national representative sample of the Belgian population using the contamination data of cereal-based foods. Cereal-based food products (n=174) were analysed for the occurrence of deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, zearalenone, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, T-2-toxin, HT-2-toxin, and their respective masked forms, including, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, zearalenone-4-glucoside, α-zearalenol-4-glucoside, β-zearalenol-4-glucoside and zearalenone-4-sulfate. Fibre-enriched bread, bran-enriched bread, breakfast cereals, popcorn and oatmeal were collected in Belgian supermarkets according to a structured sampling plan and analysed during the period from April 2010 to October 2011. The habitual intake of these food groups was estimated from a national representative food intake survey. According to a probabilistic exposure analysis, the mean (and P95) mycotoxin intake for the sum of the deoxynivalenol-equivalents, zearalenone-equivalents, and the sum of HT-2-and T-2-toxin for all cereal-based foods was 0.1162 (0.4047, P95), 0.0447 (0.1568, P95) and 0.0258 (0.0924, P95)μgkg-1bodyweightday-1, respectively. These values were below the tolerable daily intake (TDI) levels for deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and the sum of T-2 and HT-2 toxin (1.0, 0.25 and 0.1μgkg-1bodyweightday-1, respectively). The absolute level exceeding the TDI for all cereal-based foods was calculated, and recorded 0.85%, 2.75% and 4.11% of the Belgian population, respectively. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Maliogka V.I.,Laboratory of Plant Pathology | Olmos A.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Agrarias Ivia | Pappi P.G.,Laboratory of Plant Pathology | Lotos L.,Laboratory of Plant Pathology | And 6 more authors.
Virus Research | Year: 2015

Roditis leaf discoloration (RLD), a graft-transmissible disease of grapevine, was first reported in Greece in the 1980s. Even though various native grapevine viruses were identified in the affected vines, the etiology of the disease remained unknown. In the present study, we used an NGS platform for sequencing siRNAs from a twenty-year old Roditis vine showing typical RLD symptoms. Analysis of the NGS data revealed the presence of various known grapevine viruses and viroids as well as a hitherto uncharacterized DNA virus. The circular genome of the new virus was fully reassembled. It is 6988 nts long and includes 4 open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1, ORF2 and ORF4 code for proteins with unknown functions while ORF3 encodes a polyprotein with motifs related to the replication, encapsidation and movement of the virus. Phylogenetic analysis classified the novel virus within the genus Badnavirus, with closest relationship to Fig badnavirus 1. Further studies showed that the new badnavirus is closely related with the RLD disease and the provisional name grapevine Roditis leaf discoloration-associated virus (GRLDaV) is proposed. Our findings extend the number of DNA viruses identified in grapevine, further drawing attention to the potential importance of this virus group on grapevine pathology. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | French National Institute for Agricultural Research, Institute of Viticulture of Heraklion, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Agrarias Ivia and Laboratory of Plant Pathology
Type: | Journal: Virus research | Year: 2015

Roditis leaf discoloration (RLD), a graft-transmissible disease of grapevine, was first reported in Greece in the 1980s. Even though various native grapevine viruses were identified in the affected vines, the etiology of the disease remained unknown. In the present study, we used an NGS platform for sequencing siRNAs from a twenty-year old Roditis vine showing typical RLD symptoms. Analysis of the NGS data revealed the presence of various known grapevine viruses and viroids as well as a hitherto uncharacterized DNA virus. The circular genome of the new virus was fully reassembled. It is 6988 nts long and includes 4 open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1, ORF2 and ORF4 code for proteins with unknown functions while ORF3 encodes a polyprotein with motifs related to the replication, encapsidation and movement of the virus. Phylogenetic analysis classified the novel virus within the genus Badnavirus, with closest relationship to Fig badnavirus 1. Further studies showed that the new badnavirus is closely related with the RLD disease and the provisional name grapevine Roditis leaf discoloration-associated virus (GRLDaV) is proposed. Our findings extend the number of DNA viruses identified in grapevine, further drawing attention to the potential importance of this virus group on grapevine pathology.


Markakis E.A.,Institute of Olive Tree | Fountoulakis M.S.,Technological Educational Institute of Crete | Daskalakis G.C.,Technological Educational Institute of Crete | Kokkinis M.,Technological Educational Institute of Crete | Ligoxigakis E.K.,Laboratory of Plant Pathology
Crop Protection | Year: 2016

The suppressive effect of six different compost amendments (A, B, C, D, E and Z) against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-cucumerinum (Forc) in cucumber and Verticillium dahliae in eggplant was tested. The evaluation of composts in each pathosystem was carried out by recording external symptoms, isolations and plant growth. The concentration of total phenols was determined in the root and stem tissues of eggplant as well as in pure composts and in potting mixtures (soil amended with 20% of compost) at the beginning and the end of eggplant - V. dahliae bioassays. It was shown that composts A, B, C and D were effective against Forc, and composts C, D, E and Z were effective against V. dahliae. The decreased symptom severity and V. dahliae isolation ratio in eggplant was associated with significantly lower accumulation of phenols in stem tissues; whereas the concentration of total phenols in stem tissues of V. dahliae-infested eggplants was significantly higher compared to the non infested. In addition, total phenols content in the pure V. dahliae-suppressive composts was significantly higher than in the non-suppressive ones. Moreover, total phenols content in soil substrate and in potting mixture A decreased, whereas in mixtures B, C, D, E and Z was significantly increased during the time of bioassays process. Interestingly, total phenols content in the V. dahliae-suppressive potting mixtures C, D, E and Z was 3.8-, 3.7-, 3.7- and 4.4-fold higher compared with the non-suppressive control (100% soil), at the end of bioassays process (68 days post inoculation). This is the first insight in the role of phenols in the suppressive effect of composts against soil-borne pathogens, in planta. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Kubo Y.,Laboratory of Plant Pathology
Sub-Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2014

Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles of eukaryotic cells that accomplish a variety of biochemical functions, including “-oxidation of fatty acids, glyoxylate cycle, etc. Many reports have been accumulating that indicate peroxisome related metabolic functions are essential for pathogenic development of plant pathogenic fungi. They include peroxisome biogenesis proteins, peroxins and preferential destruction of peroxisomes, pexophagy. Gene disrupted mutants of anthracnose disease pathogen Colletotrichum orbiculare or rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae defective in peroxins or pexophagy showed deficiency in pathogenesis. Woronin body, a peroxisome related cellular organelle that is related to endurance of fungal cells against environmental damage has essential roles in pathogenesis of M. oryzae. Also, peroxisome related metabolisms such as β-oxidation and glyoxylate cycle are essential for pathogenesis in several plant pathogenic fungi. In addition, secondary metabolisms including polyketide melanin biosynthesis of C. orbiculare and M. oryzae, and host selective toxins produced by necrotrophic pathogen Alternaria alternata have pivotal roles in fungal pathogenesis. Every such factor was listed and their functions for pathogenesis were demonstrated (Table 18.1 and Fig. 18.1). © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013.


Kubo Y.,Laboratory of Plant Pathology
Sub-cellular biochemistry | Year: 2013

Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles of eukaryotic cells that accomplish a variety of biochemical functions, including β-oxidation of fatty acids, glyoxylate cycle, etc. Many reports have been accumulating that indicate peroxisome related metabolic functions are essential for pathogenic development of plant pathogenic fungi. They include peroxisome biogenesis proteins, peroxins and preferential destruction of peroxisomes, pexophagy. Gene disrupted mutants of anthracnose disease pathogen Colletotrichum orbiculare or rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae defective in peroxins or pexophagy showed deficiency in pathogenesis. Woronin body, a peroxisome related cellular organelle that is related to endurance of fungal cells against environmental damage has essential roles in pathogenesis of M. oryzae. Also, peroxisome related metabolisms such as β-oxidation and glyoxylate cycle are essential for pathogenesis in several plant pathogenic fungi. In addition, secondary metabolisms including polyketide melanin biosynthesis of C. orbiculare and M. oryzae, and host selective toxins produced by necrotrophic pathogen Alternaria alternata have pivotal roles in fungal pathogenesis. Every such factor was listed and their functions for pathogenesis were demonstrated (Table 18.1 and Fig. 18.1).


PubMed | Laboratory of Plant Pathology
Type: | Journal: Sub-cellular biochemistry | Year: 2013

Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles of eukaryotic cells that accomplish a variety of biochemical functions, including -oxidation of fatty acids, glyoxylate cycle, etc. Many reports have been accumulating that indicate peroxisome related metabolic functions are essential for pathogenic development of plant pathogenic fungi. They include peroxisome biogenesis proteins, peroxins and preferential destruction of peroxisomes, pexophagy. Gene disrupted mutants of anthracnose disease pathogen Colletotrichum orbiculare or rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae defective in peroxins or pexophagy showed deficiency in pathogenesis. Woronin body, a peroxisome related cellular organelle that is related to endurance of fungal cells against environmental damage has essential roles in pathogenesis of M. oryzae. Also, peroxisome related metabolisms such as -oxidation and glyoxylate cycle are essential for pathogenesis in several plant pathogenic fungi. In addition, secondary metabolisms including polyketide melanin biosynthesis of C. orbiculare and M. oryzae, and host selective toxins produced by necrotrophic pathogen Alternaria alternata have pivotal roles in fungal pathogenesis. Every such factor was listed and their functions for pathogenesis were demonstrated (Table 18.1 and Fig. 18.1).


Takikawa Y.,Laboratory of Plant Pathology | Takahashi F.,Laboratory of Plant Pathology | Takahashi F.,Shizuoka Prefectural Research Institute of Agriculture and Forestry
Journal of General Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

Bacterial leaf spot and blight diseases caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm) and P. cannabina pv. alisalensis (Pcal) are becoming a significant concern for producers of crucifer crops worldwide. Since Psm was first described in 1911, many have reported on its diverse phenotypic, genetic and pathogenic characteristics. Japanese isolates of Psm are also heterogeneous and differ in their host preferences. Pcal was first described in 2002 and has quickly spread globally. Recent work demonstrated that some isolates that had been identified as Psm are actually Pcal. Pcal was also shown to be split into two groups, A and B, based on bacteriological properties, genetic traits and pathogenicity. Group A of Pcal consists mostly of isolates from Japanese radish and radish, isolated before 1990s, that are more aggressive on radish leaves but less aggressive on other Brassica plants compared with group B. Group B of Pcal consists of recent isolates from various crucifer plants including the pathotype of Pcal. In this review, we suggest that group A of Pcal may have existed since the 1950s and survived as a relatively minor pathogen on radish or Japanese radish, whereas group B emerged in the late 1990s, causing global epidemics because of its stronger virulence on various Brassica crops. We also suggest that emergence of a new group of a pathogenic bacterium may cause a re-emergence or new epidemics of a disease that previously was of minor importance. © 2014, The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Springer Japan.

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