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Kubo Y.,Laboratory of Plant Pathology
Sub-Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2014

Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles of eukaryotic cells that accomplish a variety of biochemical functions, including “-oxidation of fatty acids, glyoxylate cycle, etc. Many reports have been accumulating that indicate peroxisome related metabolic functions are essential for pathogenic development of plant pathogenic fungi. They include peroxisome biogenesis proteins, peroxins and preferential destruction of peroxisomes, pexophagy. Gene disrupted mutants of anthracnose disease pathogen Colletotrichum orbiculare or rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae defective in peroxins or pexophagy showed deficiency in pathogenesis. Woronin body, a peroxisome related cellular organelle that is related to endurance of fungal cells against environmental damage has essential roles in pathogenesis of M. oryzae. Also, peroxisome related metabolisms such as β-oxidation and glyoxylate cycle are essential for pathogenesis in several plant pathogenic fungi. In addition, secondary metabolisms including polyketide melanin biosynthesis of C. orbiculare and M. oryzae, and host selective toxins produced by necrotrophic pathogen Alternaria alternata have pivotal roles in fungal pathogenesis. Every such factor was listed and their functions for pathogenesis were demonstrated (Table 18.1 and Fig. 18.1). © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013.


Markakis E.A.,Institute of Olive Tree | Fountoulakis M.S.,Technological Educational Institute of Crete | Daskalakis G.C.,Technological Educational Institute of Crete | Kokkinis M.,Technological Educational Institute of Crete | Ligoxigakis E.K.,Laboratory of Plant Pathology
Crop Protection | Year: 2016

The suppressive effect of six different compost amendments (A, B, C, D, E and Z) against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-cucumerinum (Forc) in cucumber and Verticillium dahliae in eggplant was tested. The evaluation of composts in each pathosystem was carried out by recording external symptoms, isolations and plant growth. The concentration of total phenols was determined in the root and stem tissues of eggplant as well as in pure composts and in potting mixtures (soil amended with 20% of compost) at the beginning and the end of eggplant - V. dahliae bioassays. It was shown that composts A, B, C and D were effective against Forc, and composts C, D, E and Z were effective against V. dahliae. The decreased symptom severity and V. dahliae isolation ratio in eggplant was associated with significantly lower accumulation of phenols in stem tissues; whereas the concentration of total phenols in stem tissues of V. dahliae-infested eggplants was significantly higher compared to the non infested. In addition, total phenols content in the pure V. dahliae-suppressive composts was significantly higher than in the non-suppressive ones. Moreover, total phenols content in soil substrate and in potting mixture A decreased, whereas in mixtures B, C, D, E and Z was significantly increased during the time of bioassays process. Interestingly, total phenols content in the V. dahliae-suppressive potting mixtures C, D, E and Z was 3.8-, 3.7-, 3.7- and 4.4-fold higher compared with the non-suppressive control (100% soil), at the end of bioassays process (68 days post inoculation). This is the first insight in the role of phenols in the suppressive effect of composts against soil-borne pathogens, in planta. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Kubo Y.,Laboratory of Plant Pathology
Sub-cellular biochemistry | Year: 2013

Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles of eukaryotic cells that accomplish a variety of biochemical functions, including β-oxidation of fatty acids, glyoxylate cycle, etc. Many reports have been accumulating that indicate peroxisome related metabolic functions are essential for pathogenic development of plant pathogenic fungi. They include peroxisome biogenesis proteins, peroxins and preferential destruction of peroxisomes, pexophagy. Gene disrupted mutants of anthracnose disease pathogen Colletotrichum orbiculare or rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae defective in peroxins or pexophagy showed deficiency in pathogenesis. Woronin body, a peroxisome related cellular organelle that is related to endurance of fungal cells against environmental damage has essential roles in pathogenesis of M. oryzae. Also, peroxisome related metabolisms such as β-oxidation and glyoxylate cycle are essential for pathogenesis in several plant pathogenic fungi. In addition, secondary metabolisms including polyketide melanin biosynthesis of C. orbiculare and M. oryzae, and host selective toxins produced by necrotrophic pathogen Alternaria alternata have pivotal roles in fungal pathogenesis. Every such factor was listed and their functions for pathogenesis were demonstrated (Table 18.1 and Fig. 18.1).


Konstantinou S.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Veloukas T.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Leroch M.,University of Kaiserslautern | Menexes G.,Laboratory of Agronomy | And 2 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2015

Botrytis cinerea is a pathogen with high genetic variability that has also shown high risk for fungicide resistance development. In total, 1,169 isolates obtained from strawberry (n = 297) and tomato (n = 872) in five geographic regions of Greece were tested for their sensitivity to several botryticides. A high frequency of isolates with multiple resistance to carbendazim, cyprodinil, pyraclostrobin, and boscalid was found in isolates from strawberry. In the isolates from tomato, the predominant phenotype was that of dual resistance to carbendazim and cyprodinil in the Crete island, of single resistance to carbendazim in the region of Preveza, and of sensitive isolates in the region of Kyparissia. None of the tested isolates was found to be fludioxonil resistant. High frequencies of boscalid-resistant phenotypes were observed in the strawberry isolates, while boscalid-resistance frequency in the tomato isolates was lower. H272R was the predominant sdhB mutation, associated with resistance to boscalid, in all the sampled isolates, while other sdhB mutations were found at low frequencies. B. cinerea group S, identified by the presence of a 21-bp insertion in the transcription factor mrr1 gene, was predominant within the tomato isolates obtained from all three sampled regions, with frequencies ranging from 62 to 75% of the isolates; whereas, within strawberry isolates, B. cinerea was predominant, with frequencies of 75 to 95%. Correlations of isolate genotype and fungicide resistance profile showed that B. cinerea sensu stricto isolates were more prone to the development of resistance to boscalid compared with the Botrytis group S isolates, which may explain the observed predominance of B. cinerea sensu stricto in strawberry fields. © 2015 The American Phytopathological Society.


Ferretti L.,Agriculture Research Council | Gentili A.,Agriculture Research Council | Costantini E.,Agriculture Research Council | Zoina A.,University of Naples Federico II | And 3 more authors.
Vitis - Journal of Grapevine Research | Year: 2014

Among the grapevine diseases, Flavescence dorée (FD) is considered to be one of the greatest threats for grapevine cultivation throughout Europe. In Italy, where several major outbreaks of FD have occurred in the past, the disease is still mainly restricted to the northern regions and is under mandatory regulation. In 2011 the disease was recorded for the first time in southern Italy, in several vineyards located on the isle of Ischia (Campania). In order to determine the FD-re-Iated phytoplasma infecting these grapevines, molecular investigations were carried out on grapevine samples collected from several FD infected vineyards. The 16S rDNA/spacer region and the FD9 non-ribosomal fragment (secY gene) were investigated using a PCR/RFLP based method; a nucleotide sequence analysis of the FD9 amplified fragments was also carried out. The RFLP profiles obtained from all the analyzed samples showed the presence of FD-D phytoplasma type, on both 16S and secY genomic regions. Sequencing of the FD9 fragments showed a 99 % nucleotide sequence identity among the tested isolates and the various FD-D strains retrieved from the NCBI database.

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