Laboratory of Physiology of the Aggressions

science of, Tunisia

Laboratory of Physiology of the Aggressions

science of, Tunisia
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Rezg R.,Laboratory of Physiology of the Aggressions | Mornagui B.,Laboratory of Physiology of the Aggressions | Benahmed M.,Pasteur Institute of Tunis | Gharsalla Chouchane S.,Laboratory of Genetics and Molecular Biology | And 5 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2010

Exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides is virtually ubiquitous. These inevitable agents are neurotoxicants, but recent evidence also points to lasting effects on carbohydrate metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 32 repeated treatment days with malathion, an OP insecticide, on some molecular and metabolic parameters. Malathion at 100. mg/kg was administered by gavage in Wistar rats.Results of this study indicate a significant decrease in hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA, of malathion-treated rats. This result, in accordance with that of diabetic type 2 rat model, may be due to very potent negative feedback effects of glucocorticoids on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. In addition, we have recorded a significant increase in hypothalamic inducible NO synthase mRNA which probably enhances the negative feedback. These alterations are accompanied with hypertriglyceridemia that may be a favourable condition to insulin resistance. Thus, results of the present study suggest that malathion can be considered as an important risk factor in the development of diabetes type 2, which prevalence increased substantially in our country and around the world. Clearly, we need to focus further research on the specific incidences of hazardous food chemical contaminant that might be contributing to epidemic health perspectives. © 2010.


PubMed | Laboratory of Physiology of the Aggressions
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxicology mechanisms and methods | Year: 2014

The present study was designed to determine the immunosuppressive effects of carbosulfan (CB) and their relationship with an increased formation of reactive oxygen species in rat. Further, we aimed to evaluate the protective effects of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) against immunopathological changes induced by CB. Carbosulfan (25mg/kg) and NAC (2g/l) were given daily to rats during 30 days, via oral gavage and drinking water, respectively. Cell-mediated immune function, cytokines production, biomarkers of cell redox state maintenance, lipid peroxidation and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in the spleen. Our data showed an increase in WBC percent (28.42%), a reduction in spleen CD8 T-lymphocytes (-85.63%) and a decrease in immunosuppressive cytokines production such as INF-gamma and IL-4. There was a switch from Th1-type to Th2-type cytokines with an unbalance toward anti-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, a significant decrease in reduced glutathione (-71.68%) and total thiols (-39.81%) levels were observed in treated rats. Conversely, malondialdehyde level in spleen was increased (-42.3%), while glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were depleted. Our results suggest that subchronic CB administration affects cellular enzyme and non-enzyme-mediated antioxidant defense systems and promotes immunotoxicity in rat. On the other hand, our data showed protective effects of NAC. Indeed, there was a recovery of oxidative stress markers and cytokines production. The use of NAC, in our study, as a therapeutic agent showed interesting results against CB toxicity.


PubMed | Laboratory of Physiology of the Aggressions
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association | Year: 2010

Exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides is virtually ubiquitous. These inevitable agents are neurotoxicants, but recent evidence also points to lasting effects on carbohydrate metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 32 repeated treatment days with malathion, an OP insecticide, on some molecular and metabolic parameters. Malathion at 100 mg/kg was administered by gavage in Wistar rats. Results of this study indicate a significant decrease in hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA, of malathion-treated rats. This result, in accordance with that of diabetic type 2 rat model, may be due to very potent negative feedback effects of glucocorticoids on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. In addition, we have recorded a significant increase in hypothalamic inducible NO synthase mRNA which probably enhances the negative feedback. These alterations are accompanied with hypertriglyceridemia that may be a favourable condition to insulin resistance. Thus, results of the present study suggest that malathion can be considered as an important risk factor in the development of diabetes type 2, which prevalence increased substantially in our country and around the world. Clearly, we need to focus further research on the specific incidences of hazardous food chemical contaminant that might be contributing to epidemic health perspectives.

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