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Gusella M.,Laboratory of Pharmacology and Molecular Biology
Pharmacogenomics Journal | Year: 2016

Candidate genes involved in DNA repair, 5-fluorouracil metabolism and drug detoxification were genotyped in 124 patients receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiation treatment for locally advanced esophageal cancer and their predictive role for long-term relapse-free survival (RFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were evaluated. A panel including MTHFR 677TT, MDR1 2677GT, GSTP1 114CC, XPC 499CC and XPC 939AC+CC, defined as high-risk genotypes, discriminated subgroups with significantly different outcomes. When the panel was combined with histology, patients split into two subsets with 5-year RFS and CSS rates of 65% vs 27% (hazard ratio (HR) 3.0, P<0.0001) and 69% vs 31% (HR 2.9, P<0.0001), respectively. Combining the 5-single-nucleotide polymorphism (5-SNP) panel with pathological response defined two major informative risk classes with 5-year PFS and CSS rates of 79.4% vs 17.7% (HR 6.71, P<0.0001) and 79.3% vs 26.3% (HR 6.25, P<0.0001), respectively. This classification achieved a sensitivity of 79%, a specificity of 85.4% and an accuracy of 81.8%.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 1 March 2016; doi:10.1038/tpj.2016.9. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited

Nisi A.,University of Padua | Panfili M.,University of Padua | De Rosa G.,University of Padua | Boffa G.,University of Padua | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Pentoxifylline (PTX) is extensively metabolized in the body, and all its 3 plasma metabolites (M1, M4, M5) are pharmacologically active. The authors evaluated the pharmacokinetics of PTX and its metabolites in 20 patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Eleven had moderate and 9 severe CHF. The time courses of PTX, M1, M4, and M5 plasma levels were determined after oral administration of a sustained-release 600-mg tablet of PTX, and for each compound, AUC, maximal plasma concentration (Cmax), and time to Cmax (T peak ) were calculated. Compared with patients with moderate CHF, those with severe CHF showed a significant delay in T peak of PTX (3.9 vs 1.6 hours) and M5 (5.6 vs 3.6 hours), a 59% significant increase in M5 AUC, and a 56% nonsignificant increase in PTX AUC. In the whole population, the AUCs of PTX, M4, and M5 were inversely correlated with markers of liver function, whereas the AUCs of M4 and M5 were inversely correlated with the creatinine clearance. In view of the kinetic features of slow-release formulations (flip-flop phenomenon), the delay in T peak of PTX in patients with severe CHF compared with moderate CHF should be ascribed to a reduced elimination rate. © The Author(s) 2012.

Afzal S.,Rigshospitalet | Afzal S.,Bispebjerg Hospital | Afzal S.,Copenhagen University | Gusella M.,Laboratory of Pharmacology and Molecular Biology | And 25 more authors.
Pharmacogenomics | Year: 2011

Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether specific combinations of polymorphisms in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) metabolism-related genes were associated with outcome in 5-FU-based adjuvant treatment of colorectal cancer. Methods: We analyzed two cohorts of 302 and 290 patients, respectively, one cohort for exploratory analyses and another cohort for validating the exploratory analyses. A total of ten polymorphisms in genes involved in 5-FU pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics were studied. End points were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival. Multifactor dimensionality reduction was used to identify genetic interaction profiles associated with outcome. Results: Low-expression alleles in thymidylate synthase (TYMS) were associated with decreased DFS and overall survival (DFS:hazard ratio [HR] exploration 2.65 [1.40-4.65]; p = 0.004, HR validation 1.69 [1.03-2.66]; p = 0.03). A specific multifactor dimensionality reduction derived combination of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and TYMS polymorphisms was associated with increased DFS (HR exploration 0.69 [0.49-0.98]; p = 0.04, HR validation 0.66 [0.45-0.95]; p = 0.03). Specific combinations of functional polymorphisms in DPYD and TYMS were demonstrated to be associated with DFS and overall survival in patients receiving adjuvant 5-FU-based treatment. Specifically high TYMS expression alleles seem to be associated with decreased DFS. Original submitted 13 April 2011; Revision submitted 10 June 201. © 2011 Future Medicine Ltd.

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