Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases

Laboratory of, United States

Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases

Laboratory of, United States
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Yu Y.,J. Craig Venter Institute | Kwon K.,J. Craig Venter Institute | Tsitrin T.,J. Craig Venter Institute | Bekele S.,J. Craig Venter Institute | And 4 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2017

Neutrophils have an important role in the antimicrobial defense and resolution of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Our research suggests that a mechanism known as neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation is a defense strategy to combat pathogens that have invaded the urinary tract. A set of human urine specimens with very high neutrophil counts had microscopic evidence of cellular aggregation and lysis. Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase) treatment resulted in disaggregation of such structures, release of DNA fragments and a proteome enriched in histones and azurophilic granule effectors whose quantitative composition was similar to that of previously described in vitro-formed NETs. The effector proteins were further enriched in DNA-protein complexes isolated in native PAGE gels. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed a flattened morphology of neutrophils associated with decondensed chromatin, remnants of granules in the cell periphery, and myeloperoxidase co-localized with extracellular DNA, features consistent with early-phase NETs. Nuclear staining revealed that a considerable fraction of bacterial cells in these structures were dead. The proteomes of two pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, were indicative of adaptive responses to early-phase NETs, specifically the release of virulence factors and arrest of ribosomal protein synthesis. Finally, we discovered patterns of proteolysis consistent with widespread cleavage of proteins by neutrophil elastase, proteinase 3 and cathepsin G and evidence of citrullination in many nuclear proteins. © 2017 Yu et al.

Meylan F.,Immunoregulation Section | Song Y.-J.,Immunoregulation Section | Fuss I.,Laboratory of Host Defenses | Villarreal S.,Immunoregulation Section | And 8 more authors.
Mucosal Immunology | Year: 2011

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-family cytokine TL1A (TNFSF15) costimulates T cells through its receptor DR3 (TNFRSF25) and is required for autoimmune pathology driven by diverse T-cell subsets. TL1A has been linked to human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but its pathogenic role is not known. We generated transgenic mice that constitutively express TL1A in T cells or dendritic cells. These mice spontaneously develop IL-13-dependent inflammatory small bowel pathology that strikingly resembles the intestinal response to nematode infections. These changes were dependent on the presence of a polyclonal T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire, suggesting that they are driven by components in the intestinal flora. Forkhead box P3 (FoxP3)-positive regulatory T cells (Tregs) were present in increased numbers despite the fact that TL1A suppresses the generation of inducible Tregs. Finally, blocking TL1A-DR3 interactions abrogates 2,4,6 trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis, indicating that these interactions influence other causes of intestinal inflammation as well. These results establish a novel link between TL1A and interleukin 13 (IL-13) responses that results in small intestinal inflammation, and also establish that TL1A-DR3 interactions are necessary and sufficient for T cell-dependent IBD. © 2011 Society for Mucosal Immunology.

PubMed | National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, St George's, University of London, Laboratorio Of Investigaciones Fepis and Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of infectious diseases | Year: 2016

Many studies have documented lower vaccine efficacy among children in low-income countries, compared with their counterparts in high-income countries. This disparity is especially apparent with respect to oral vaccines such as rotavirus and oral polio vaccines. One potential contributing factor is the presence of maternal antenatal helminth infections, which can modulate the infants developing immune system.Using a multiplex immunoassay, we tested plasma immunoglobulin A (IgA) or immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels specific for antigens in 9 routinely administered childhood vaccines among 1639 children aged approximately 13 months enrolled in the ECUAVIDA (Ecuador Life) birth cohort study in Ecuador. We compared vaccine responses in 712 children of mothers who tested positive for helminth infections in the last trimester of pregnancy to responses in 927 children of mothers without helminth infection.Plasma IgA levels specific for antigens in rotavirus vaccine and oral polio vaccine containing poliovirus serotypes 1 and 3 were all significantly higher in children of helminth-infected mothers, compared with children of uninfected mothers. Plasma IgG levels specific for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, measles, rubella, and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine antigens were comparable between the 2 groups.Antenatal maternal helminth infections were not associated with reduced antibody responses to infant vaccines, but rather with modestly increased IgA responses to oral vaccines.

PubMed | National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of infectious diseases | Year: 2015

Elimination of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis is targeted for 2020. Given the coincident Loa loa infections in Central Africa and the potential for drug resistance development, the need for new microfilaricides and macrofilaricides has never been greater. With the genomes of L. loa, Onchocerca volvulus, Wuchereria bancrofti, and Brugia malayi available, new drug targets have been identified.The effects of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors imatinib, nilotinib, and dasatinib on B. malayi adult males, adult females, L3 larvae, and microfilariae were assessed using a wide dose range (0-100 M) in vitro.For microfilariae, median inhibitory concentrations (IC50 values) on day 6 were 6.06 M for imatinib, 3.72 M for dasatinib, and 81.35 M for nilotinib; for L3 larvae, 11.27 M, 13.64 M, and 70.98 M, respectively; for adult males, 41.6 M, 3.87 M, and 68.22 M, respectively; and for adult females, 42.89 M, 9.8 M, and >100 M, respectively. Three-dimensional modeling suggests how these tyrosine kinase inhibitors bind and inhibit filarial protein activity.Given the safety of imatinib in humans, plans are underway for pilot clinical trials to assess its efficacy in patients with filarial infections.

Grainger J.R.,Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases | Wohlfert E.A.,Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases | Fuss I.J.,Laboratory of Host Defenses | Bouladoux N.,Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases | And 7 more authors.
Nature Medicine | Year: 2013

The commensal flora can promote both immunity to pathogens and mucosal inflammation. How commensal-driven inflammation is regulated in the context of infection remains poorly understood. Here, we show that during acute mucosal infection of mice with Toxoplasma gondii, inflammatory monocytes acquire a tissue-specific regulatory phenotype associated with production of the lipid mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Notably, in response to commensals, inflammatory monocytes can directly inhibit neutrophil activation in a PGE2-dependent manner. Further, in the absence of inflammatory monocytes, mice develop severe neutrophil-mediated pathology in response to pathogen challenge that can be controlled by PGE2 analog treatment. Complementing these findings, inhibition of PGE2 led to enhanced neutrophil activation and host mortality after infection. These data demonstrate a previously unappreciated dual action of inflammatory monocytes in controlling pathogen expansion while limiting commensal-mediated damage to the gut. Collectively, our results place inflammatory monocyte-derived PGE2 at the center of a commensal-driven regulatory loop required to control host-commensal dialog during pathogen-induced inflammation. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Garcia H.H.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Neurologicas | Garcia H.H.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | Gonzales I.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Neurologicas | Lescano A.G.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | And 5 more authors.
Epilepsia | Year: 2014

Objective: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a major cause of seizures and epilepsy in endemic countries. Antiparasitic treatment of brain cysts leads to seizures due to the host's inflammatory reaction, requiring concomitant steroids. We hypothesized that increased steroid dosing will reduce treatment-associated seizures.Methods: Open-label randomized trial comparing 6 mg/day dexamethasone for 10 days (conventional) with 8 mg/day for 28 days followed by a 2-week taper (enhanced) in patients with NCC receiving albendazole. Follow-up included active seizure surveillance and brain imaging. Study outcomes were seizure days and patients with seizures, both measured in days 11-42. Additional analyses compared days 1-10, 11-21, 22-32, 33-42, 43-60, and 61-180.Results: Thirty-two individuals were randomized into each study arm; two did not complete follow-up. From days 11 to 42, 59 partial and 6 generalized seizure days occurred in 20 individuals, nonsignificantly fewer in the enhanced arm (12 vs. 49, p = 0.114). The numbers of patients with seizures in this period showed similar nonsignificant differences. In the enhanced steroid arm there were significantly fewer days and individuals with seizures during antiparasitic treatment (days 1-10: 4 vs. 17, p = 0.004, and 1 vs. 10, p = 0.003, number needed to treat [NNT] 4.6, relative risk [RR] 0.1013, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01-0.74) and early after dexamethasone cessation (days 11-21: 6 vs. 27, p = 0.014, and 4 vs. 12, p = 0.021, NNT 4.0, RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.12-0.92) but not after day 21. There were no significant differences in antiparasitic efficacy or relevant adverse events.Significance: Increased dexamethasone dosing results in fewer seizures for the first 21 days during and early after antiparasitic treatment for viable parenchymal NCC but not during the first 11-42 days, which was the primary predetermined time of analysis. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

Meylan F.,Immunoregulation Section | Hawley E.T.,Immunoregulation Section | Barron L.,Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases | Barlow J.L.,MRCLaboratory of Molecular Biology | And 11 more authors.
Mucosal Immunology | Year: 2014

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-family cytokine TL1A (TNFSF15) costimulates T cells and promotes diverse T cell-dependent models of autoimmune disease through its receptor DR3. TL1A polymorphisms also confer susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we find that allergic pathology driven by constitutive TL1A expression depends on interleukin-13 (IL-13), but not on T, NKT, mast cells, or commensal intestinal flora. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) express surface DR3 and produce IL-13 and other type 2 cytokines in response to TL1A. DR3 is required for ILC2 expansion and function in the setting of T cell-dependent and -independent models of allergic disease. By contrast, DR3-deficient ILC2 can still differentiate, expand, and produce IL-13 when stimulated by IL-25 or IL-33, and mediate expulsion of intestinal helminths. These data identify costimulation of ILC2 as a novel function of TL1A important for allergic lung disease, and suggest that TL1A may be a therapeutic target in these settings. © 2014 Society for Mucosal Immunology.

Cooper A.M.,Trudeau Institute | Mayer-Barber K.D.,Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases | Sher A.,Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases
Mucosal Immunology | Year: 2011

Cells of the innate immune system produce cytokines and lipid mediators that strongly influence the outcome of mycobacterial infection. In the case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the lung is a critical site for this interaction. Here, we review current information on the role of the major innate cytokine pathways both in controlling initial infection as well as in promoting and maintaining adaptive T-cell responses that mediate host resistance or immunopathology. Understanding this important feature of the host-pathogen interaction can provide major insights into the mechanisms of virulence and can lead to new approaches for immunological intervention in tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases. © 2011 Society for Mucosal Immunology.

E Silva F.M.P.,Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases | E Silva F.M.P.,Biosciences Institute | Monobe M.M.,Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases | Monobe M.M.,Biosciences Institute | And 2 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2012

The intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia intestinalis and Giardia lamblia) is a widespread enteric pathogen in human and domestic animals. This organism is one of the most common parasites in domestic dogs in Brazil. In this study, we determined the occurrence and genetic characterization of G. duodenalis isolated from dogs from south-central São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 300 fecal samples were collected. Fecal specimens were screened for the presence of G. duodenalis using microscopy (zinc sulfate solution flotation technique) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the small subunit ribosomal (SSU-rDNA) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) genes. Genetic characterization was performed using restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) and sequencing analysis of the GDH gene. In addition, selected samples were further characterized by RFLP and sequencing of the β-giardin gene. The overall occurrence of G. duodenalis was 17.3% (52/300). The occurrence was higher in stray dogs (28%) than in household dogs (6.25%). Of the 36 PCR-positive samples that were selected for genotyping, only dog-specific genotype C (20 isolates), D (11 isolates) and mixed C+D (five isolates) isolates were detected in the study. This study provides current information on the infection rates of G. duodenalis genotypes in canine populations and describes for the first time the presence of mixed infections within host-specific C and D genotypes in dogs in Brazil. These genotypes were widespread and commonly found in domestic dogs living in urban and suburban environments of the studied area and confirmed the endemic status of Giardia in this region. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

Wynn T.A.,Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases | Ramalingam T.R.,Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases
Nature Medicine | Year: 2012

Fibrosis is a pathological feature of most chronic inflammatory diseases. Fibrosis, or scarring, is defined by the accumulation of excess extracellular matrix components. If highly progressive, the fibrotic process eventually leads to organ malfunction and death. Fibrosis affects nearly every tissue in the body. Here we discuss how key components of the innate and adaptive immune response contribute to the pathogenesis of fibrosis. We also describe how cell-intrinsic changes in important structural cells can perpetuate the fibrotic response by regulating the differentiation, recruitment, proliferation and activation of extracellular matrix-producing myofibroblasts. Finally, we highlight some of the key mechanisms and pathways of fibrosis that are being targeted as potential therapies for a variety of important human diseases. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

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