Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology

Utrecht, Netherlands

Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology

Utrecht, Netherlands
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Kustatscher E.,Naturmuseum SUdtirol | Heunisch C.,Landesamt fur Bergbau | Van Konijnenburg-Van Cittert J.H.A.,Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology | Van Konijnenburg-Van Cittert J.H.A.,National Center for Biodiversity Naturalis
Palaios | Year: 2012

Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic conditions at Thale during the late Ladinian (Middle Triassic) are assessed using both the plant megaflora and palynoflora. These two datasets are necessary because these two different types of assemblages were subjected to different taphonomic biases and together provide a more complete appraisal of Triassic conditions in the study area. The megafossil remains represent a (par)autochthonous flora with large, well-preserved leaf and shoot fragments that indicate relatively limited transport. Most fragments probably belonged to plants growing on river banks. The composition of the rich and diversified megaflora indicates lush vegetation typical of an environment without water stress and probably a high water table. On the other hand, quantitative analyses of the palynological data using different methods (morphogroups and Sporomorph EcoGroup or SEG) show a strong dominance of bisaccate pollen. River or wetland plants are well represented by trilete, laevigate spores and multicellular algae. Since the spores were normally water transported along with the sediment and the pollen grains were wind transported over long distances, but also by water, there are two possible interpretations: (1) the local flora was dominated by ferns within a larger, conifer-dominated, and possibly forested area; (2) time related, the megaflora shows a short-term signal that corresponds to a humid spell during the generally more arid period of Middle and Late Triassic, while the palynoflora shows a longer-term, regional signal. © 2012 SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

Kustatscher E.,Naturmuseum Sudtirol | Pott C.,Swedish Museum of Natural History | van Konijnenburg-van Cittert J.H.A.,National Center for Biodiversity Naturalis | van Konijnenburg-van Cittert J.H.A.,Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology | Year: 2011

Several European species of the Triassic fern genus Symopteris Xu are studied and the genus is subsequently subject to revision. Moreover, the botanical affinity of the genus is discussed and its relation to the Marattiales debated. Symopteris fronds have a typical fasciculate venation, usually a crenulate pinnule margin and contracted pinnule bases; in addition, the margin of the fertile pinnules is recurved to supposedly protect the sporangia. Most of the fossils have originally been attributed to the genus Bernoullia Heer, a junior synonym of Bernoullia Oliver (extant Bombacaceae). So far, eight species could be identified, three from Europe [. Symopteris helvetica (Heer) Xu in Xu et al., Symopteris lunzensis (Stur ex Krasser) Xu in Xu et al., Symopteris rumpfii (Schenk) nov.comb.], one from Kazakhstan (Symopteris aktjubensis Brik) and four from East Asia [. Symopteris zeilleri (P'an) Xu in Xu et al., Symopteris pecopteroides (Feng et al.) nov. comb., Symopteris densinervis Xu et Duan in Xu et al., Symopteris pseudolobifolia (Yang in Chen et al.) nov. comb.]. One additional species assigned earlier to Bernoullia (i.e. Bernoullia waehneri Stur) has to be attributed to another genus. The oldest known representatives of Symopteris occurred in the Ladinian of Europe; during the Upper Triassic, the genus increased in species number in Europe and Asia, while the latest occurrence is in the Rhaetian of Vietnam. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Kustatscher E.,Naturmuseum Sudtirol | Wachtler M.,P. P. Rainerstrasse 11 | Van Konijnenburg-Van Cittert J.,Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology | Van Konijnenburg-Van Cittert J.,Netherlands Center for Biodiversity Naturalis
Palaeontology | Year: 2010

Generally, lycophytes are not well represented in Anisian floras. Nonetheless, four different genera, each with one species, have been distinguished in the Anisian flora from Kühwiesenkopf (Monte Prà della Vacca), Italy. They were well preserved and yielded leaf cuticles in all four taxa and in situ spores in two of them. Lycopia dezanchei gen. et sp. nov. is the most common form; it is characterized by a dichotomising creeping prostrate rhizome (representing the primary shoot axis) from which arise aerial axes, apically bifurcated and covered with bundles of long leaves. This taxon cannot be attributed to any of the lycophyte orders, but most resembles Lycopodiales. Two representatives of the Isoetales have been found, of which Isoetites brandneri sp. nov. is abundant. This species is characterized by a short stem, which is unusual for this genus. In situ immature microspores and megaspores were found in some specimens. Lepacyclotes bechstaedtii sp. nov. has a quadrilobe corm with fertile scales inserted in whorls or slightly helicoidally. Short sterile leaves arise distally from the corm in some specimens. Selaginellales are very rare in the flora; Selaginellites leonardii sp. nov. is represented by a strobilus that yielded both micro- and megaspores. Some sterile fragments have been found associated, but never in organic connection. © The Palaeontological Association.

Kustatscher E.,Naturmuseum Sudtirol | Van Konijnenburg-Van Cittert J.H.A.,Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology | Van Konijnenburg-Van Cittert J.H.A.,National Center for Biodiversity Naturalis
Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Palaontologie - Abhandlungen | Year: 2010

This is the second paper on the Middle Triassic flora from Thale, dealing with the seed ferns and cycadophytes. Scytophyllum bergeri BORNEMANN is one of the common elements in the flora, in contrast to Sagenopteris sp. which is rare in the assemblage. However, it is the first evidence of Sagenopteris for the German Basin. The specimen described as ?Peltaspermum sp. is the only peltasperm ovuliferous organ known to date with attached ovule-bearing discs from the Middle Triassic of Europe. The cycad Apoldia tener (COMPTER 1883) ZIJLSTRA et al. 2009 (formerly Sphenozamites tener COMPTER) is by far the most common fossil plant in the assemblage. Nilssonia cf. neuberi STUR ex POTT et al. is relatively rare. The genus Bjuvia is emended to accommodate more species of large entire leaves characterised by amphistomy and cycadalean stomatal morphology. This includes Bjuvia thalensis n. sp., which is a common element in the Thale flora but is unknown from elsewhere. Narrow, long entire leaves from the Middle and Upper Triassic of Europe have been described under the name Taeniopteris angustifolia SCHENK, but have now been transferred to Taeniopteris kelberi n. sp. for nomenclatorial reasons. The macrosporophyll Dioonitocarpidium pennaeformis (SCHENK) RÜHLE VON LILIENSTERN also occurs in the Thale flora. Two cycadalean leaf species (Apoldia tener and Bjuvia thalensis) from Thale flora sometimes have stomata with only two subsidiary cells instead of the usual 4-6, a feature that in gymnosperms occurs mainly in the Bennettitales. ©2010 Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, Germany.

Stapleton C.,11 Chandos Close | Zijlstra G.,Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology
Taxon | Year: 2015

A neotype and an epitype from the widely cultivated Fountain Bamboo are proposed for Arundinaria nitida. Application and authorship of the name are discussed, in the light of confusion over the validity of this name in different publications, and the implications of selecting different types for the application of generic names. © International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) 2015.

Samartin S.,University of Bern | Heiri O.,University of Bern | Lotter A.F.,Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology | Tinner W.,University of Bern
Climate of the Past | Year: 2012

Chironomids preserved in a sediment core from Lago di Origlio (416 masl.), a lake in the foreland of the Southern Swiss Alps, allowed quantitative reconstruction of Late Glacial and Early Holocene summer temperatures using a combined Swiss-Norwegian temperature inference model based on chironomid assemblages from 274 lakes. We reconstruct July air temperatures of ca. 10 A°C between 17 300 and 16 000 cal yr BP, a rather abrupt warming to ca. 12.0 A°C at ca. 16 500-16 000 cal yr BP, and a strong temperature increase at the transition to the BAlling/AllerAd interstadial with average temperatures of about 14 A°C. During the Younger Dryas and earliest Holocene similar temperatures are reconstructed as for the interstadial. The rather abrupt warming at 16 500-16 000 cal yr BP is consistent with sea-surface temperature as well as speleothem records, which indicate a warming after the end of Heinrich event 1 (sensu stricto) and before the BAlling/AllerAd interstadial in southern Europe and the Mediterranean Sea. Pollen records from Origlio and other sites in southern Switzerland and northern Italy indicate an early reforestation of the lowlands 2000-1500 yr prior to the large-scale afforestation of Central Europe at the onset of the BAlling/AllerAd period at ca. 14 700-14 600 cal yr BP. Our results suggest that these early afforestation processes in the formerly glaciated areas of northern Italy and southern Switzerland have been promoted by increasing temperatures. © Author(s) 2012.

Zijlstra G.,Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology | Year: 2014

Authors who describe and publish new names of plants, who make new combinations (based on earlier names) and who publish replacement names, should do so in accordance with the rules. These rules can be found in the Code - since the International Botanical Congress in Melbourne in 2011, the Melbourne Code is in effect. The most important changes will be mentioned, with special attention to those rules that apply to what formerly were often indicated as 'fossil plants', now to be called 'plant fossils'. Besides changes in the rules, from now on, there is also an important change in the publication format of the Code: The rules are kept in one volume, and the continuously growing Appendices will constitute a separate volume. Besides an alteration to the name of the Code, there are two major changes in the rules: the acceptance of certain forms of electronic publication and the abandonment of the morphotaxon concept. Parallel to the latter alteration is a change for mycologists: the abolition of the provision for separate names for fungi with a pleomorphic life history.In Section 3, some further changes in and rearrangements of rules are discussed, preceded by a paragraph in which the basic concepts of the possible status of a name are presented: effectively published, validly published and legitimate. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Kustatscher E.,Naturmuseum Sudtirol Museum of Nature South Tyrol | van Konijnenburg-van Cittert J.H.A.,Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology | Roghi G.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2010

An important fossil flora has been collected in the middle-upper Pelsonian mainly marine locality at Kühwiesenkopf (NE-Dolomites, Italy). The fossil plants are briefly described and ecological reconstructions of coastal, lowland, river and upland plant assemblages were made. The composition of the rich and diversified macroflora indicates a typically warm and humid climate. The entire section was also subject of detailed palynological sampling for biostratigraphy and quantitative analyses. The palynological data confirm the macrofloral reconstructions and also suggest a warm and humid climate for this interval in the Dolomites (probably also on a more regional scale). Moreover, these results were subjected to two different palynological methods to obtain more detailed palaeoecological and palaeoclimatological data for the whole section. Palynological data suggest, that major oscillations observed in the middle part of the section are related to eustatic oscillations rather than to climatic changes. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Zijlstra G.,Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology
Taxon | Year: 2015

The idea that Schimper in his Synopsis muscorum mentioned nomenclatural types, is rejected. © International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) 2015.

van konijnenburg-Van cittert J.H.A.,Netherlands Center for Biodiversity Naturalis | van konijnenburg-Van cittert J.H.A.,Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology
Scripta Geologica | Year: 2010

An early Liassic male inflorescence of Stachyopitys preslii with in situ pollen is described from a clay lens in the sandpit Küfner near Pechgraben, Bavaria, Germany. These male inflorescences have been known since the 19 th century and are rather common in the early Liassic floras of Bavaria, but in situ pollen was hitherto unknown. Stachyopitys preslii is always found in association with the leaves and the female fructifications of Schmeissneria microstachys. The in situ pollen proved to be monosulcate, a pollen type commonly occurring in the Cycadophyta and Ginkgophyta. This strengthens the possible attribution of the parent plant of S. preslii (Schmeissneria microstachys) to the Ginkgoales.

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