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Pacheco R.,Laboratory of Neuroimmunology | Pacheco R.,San Sebastián University | Contreras F.,Laboratory of Neuroimmunology | Contreras F.,Andrés Bello University | And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2014

Bidirectional interactions between the immune and the nervous systems are of considerable interest both for deciphering their functioning and for designing novel therapeutic strategies. The past decade has brought a burst of insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in neuroimmune communications mediated by dopamine. Studies of dendritic cells (DCs) revealed that they express the whole machinery to synthesize and store dopamine, which may act in an autocrine manner to stimulate dopamine receptors (DARs). Depending on specific DARs stimulated on DCs and T cells, dopamine may differentially favor CD4+ T cell differentiation into Th1 or Th17 inflammatory cells. Regulatory T cells can also release high amounts of dopamine that acts in an autocrine DAR-mediated manner to inhibit their suppressive activity. These dopaminergic regulations could represent a driving force during autoimmunity. Indeed, dopamine levels are altered in the brain of mouse models of multiple sclerosis (MS) and lupus, and in inflamed tissues of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases or rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The distorted expression of DARs in peripheral lymphocytes of lupus and MS patients also supports the importance of dopaminergic regulations in autoimmunity. Moreover, dopamine analogs had beneficial therapeutic effects in animal models, and in patients with lupus or RA. We propose models that may underlie key roles of dopamine and its receptors in autoimmune diseases. © 2014 Pacheco, Contreras and Zouali.


Fernandez-Suarez D.,University of Navarra | Fernandez-Suarez D.,Karolinska Institutet | Celorrio M.,University of Navarra | Riezu-Boj J.I.,University of Navarra | And 9 more authors.
Neurobiology of Aging | Year: 2014

Changes in cannabinoid receptor expression and concentration of endocannabinoids have been described in Parkinson's disease; however, it remains unclear whether they contribute to, or result from, the disease process. To evaluate whether targeting the endocannabinoid system could provide potential benefits in the treatment of the disease, the effect of a monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor that prevents degradation of 2-arachidonyl-glycerol was tested in mice treated chronically with probenecid and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTPp). Chronic administration of the compound, JZL184 (8mg/kg), prevented MPTPp-induced motor impairment and preserved the nigrostriatal pathway. Furthermore, none of the hypokinetic effects associated with cannabinoid receptor agonism were observed. In the striatum and substantia nigra pars compacta, MPTPp animals treated with JZL184 exhibited astroglial and microglial phenotypic changes that were accompanied by increases in TGFβ messenger RNA expression and in glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor messenger RNA and protein levels. JZL184 induced an increase in β-catenin translocation to the nucleus, implicating the Wnt/catenin pathway. Together, these results demonstrate a potent neuroprotective effect of JZL184 on the nigrostriatal pathway of parkinsonian animals, likely involving restorative astroglia and microglia activation and the release of neuroprotective and antiinflammatory molecules. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | San Sebastián University, Medical College of Wisconsin, University of Navarra and Laboratory of Neuroimmunology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Neurobiology of aging | Year: 2014

Changes in cannabinoid receptor expression and concentration of endocannabinoids have been described in Parkinsons disease; however, it remains unclear whether they contribute to, or result from, the disease process. To evaluate whether targeting the endocannabinoid system could provide potential benefits in the treatment of the disease, the effect of a monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor that prevents degradation of 2-arachidonyl-glycerol was tested in mice treated chronically with probenecid and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTPp). Chronic administration of the compound, JZL184 (8 mg/kg), prevented MPTPp-induced motor impairment and preserved the nigrostriatal pathway. Furthermore, none of the hypokinetic effects associated with cannabinoid receptor agonism were observed. In the striatum and substantia nigra pars compacta, MPTPp animals treated with JZL184 exhibited astroglial and microglial phenotypic changes that were accompanied by increases in TGF messenger RNA expression and in glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor messenger RNA and protein levels. JZL184 induced an increase in -catenin translocation to the nucleus, implicating the Wnt/catenin pathway. Together, these results demonstrate a potent neuroprotective effect of JZL184 on the nigrostriatal pathway of parkinsonian animals, likely involving restorative astroglia and microglia activation and the release of neuroprotective and antiinflammatory molecules.


Ferraro E.,Laboratory of Molecular Neuroembryology | Ferraro E.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Ferraro E.,Laboratory of skeletal muscle development and metabolism | Pesaresi M.G.,Laboratory of Neurochemistry | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Cell Science | Year: 2011

The apoptotic protease activating factor 1 (Apaf1) is the main component of the apoptosome, and a crucial factor in the mitochondriadependent death pathway. Here we show that Apaf1 plays a role in regulating centrosome maturation. By analyzing Apaf1-depleted cells, we have found that Apaf1 loss induces centrosome defects that impair centrosomal microtubule nucleation and cytoskeleton organization. This, in turn, affects several cellular processes such as mitotic spindle formation, cell migration and mitochondrial network regulation. As a consequence, Apaf1-depleted cells are more fragile and have a lower threshold to stress than wild-type cells. In fact, we found that they exhibit low Bcl-2 and Bcl-X L expression and, under apoptotic treatment, rapidly release cytochrome c. We also show that Apaf1 acts by regulating the recruitment of HCA66, with which it interacts, to the centrosome. This function of Apaf1 is carried out during the cell life and is not related to its apoptotic role. Therefore, Apaf1 might also be considered a pro-survival molecule, whose absence impairs cell performance and causes a higher responsiveness to stressful conditions. © 2011.


Loiarro M.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Loiarro M.,Laboratory of Neuroembryology | Volpe E.,Laboratory of Neuroimmunology | Ruggiero V.,Research and Development Sigma Tau S.p.A. | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2013

Background: MyD88 is an adaptor protein that plays a crucial role in the immune response. Results: We identified residues within the TIR domain of MyD88 required for protein self-association. Conclusion: Interference with the surface of homodimerization identified by these residues inhibits MyD88 function. Significance: The inhibition of MyD88 activity could be a good therapeutic strategy for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. © 2013 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.


Gonzalez H.,Laboratory of Neuroimmunology | Contreras F.,Laboratory of Neuroimmunology | Pacheco R.,Laboratory of Neuroimmunology | Pacheco R.,Andrés Bello University
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Neuroinflammation constitutes a fundamental process involved in the physiopathology of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Microglial cells play a central role in the outcome of neuroinflammation and consequent neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Current evidence indicates that CD4+ T-cells infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS) in PD, where they play a critical role determining the functional phenotype of microglia, thus regulating the progression of the neurodegenerative process. Here, we first analysed the pathogenic role of inflammatory phenotypes and the beneficial role of anti-inflammatory phenotypes of encephalitogenic CD4+ T-cells involved in the physiopathology of PD. Next, we discussed how alterations of neurotransmitter levels observed in the basal ganglia throughout the time course of PD progression could be strongly affecting the behaviour of encephalitogenic CD4+ T-cells and thereby the outcome of the neuroinflammatory process and the consequent neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Afterward, we integrated the evidence indicating the involvement of an antigen-specific immune response mediated by T-cells and B-cells against CNS-derived self-constituents in PD. Consistent with the involvement of a relevant autoimmune component in PD, we also reviewed the polymorphisms of both, class I and class II major histocompatibility complexes, associated to the risk of PD. Overall, this study gives an overview of how an autoimmune component involved in PD plays a fundamental role in the progression of the neurodegenerative process. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Gonzalez H.,Laboratory of Neuroimmunology | Pacheco R.,Laboratory of Neuroimmunology | Pacheco R.,Andrés Bello University
Journal of Neuroinflammation | Year: 2014

Neuroinflammation is involved in several neurodegenerative disorders and emerging evidence indicates that it constitutes a critical process that is required for the progression of neurodegeneration. Microglial activation constitutes a central event in neuroinflammation. Furthermore, microglia can not only be activated with an inflammatory and neurotoxic phenotype (M1-like phenotype), but they also can acquire a neurosupportive functional phenotype (M2-like phenotype) characterised by the production of anti-inflammatory mediators and neurotrophic factors. Importantly, during the past decade, several studies have shown that CD4+ T-cells infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS) in many neurodegenerative disorders, in which their participation has a critical influence on the outcome of microglial activation and consequent neurodegeneration. In this review, we focus on the analysis of the interplay of the different sub-populations of CD4+ T-cells infiltrating the CNS and how they participate in regulating the outcome of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the context of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis. In this regard, encephalitogenic inflammatory CD4+ T-cells, such as Th1, Th17, GM-CSF-producer CD4+ T-cells and γδT-cells, strongly contribute to chronic neuroinflammation, thus perpetuating neurodegenerative processes. In contrast, encephalitogenic or meningeal Tregs and Th2 cells decrease inflammatory functions in microglial cells and promote a neurosupportive microenvironment. Moreover, whereas some neurodegenerative disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease involve the participation of inflammatory CD4+ T-cells 'naturally', the physiopathology of other neurodegenerative diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, is associated with the participation of anti-inflammatory CD4+ T-cells that delay the neurodegenerative process. Thus, current evidence supports the hypothesis that the involvement of CD4+ T-cells against CNS antigens constitutes a key component in regulating the progression of the neurodegenerative process. © González and Pacheco; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | University of Houston, Laboratory of Neuroimmunology and Laboratory of Translational Immunology and
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience | Year: 2016

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), characterized by pain and numbness in hands and feet, is a common side effect of cancer treatment. In most patients, symptoms of CIPN subside after treatment completion. However, in a substantial subgroup, CIPN persists long into survivorship. Impairment in pain resolution pathways may explain persistent CIPN. We investigated the contribution of T cells and endogenous interleukin (IL)-10 to resolution of CIPN. Paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia was prolonged in T-cell-deficient (Rag1Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy persists after completion of cancer treatment in a significant subset of patients, whereas others recover. Persistent neuropathy after completion of cancer treatment severely affects quality of life. We propose that understanding how neuropathy resolves will identify novel avenues for treatment. We identified a novel and critical role for CD8


PubMed | University of Rome Tor Vergata, CNR Institute of Neuroscience and Laboratory of Neuroimmunology
Type: | Journal: eLife | Year: 2016

The balance between self-renewal and differentiation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) dictates neurogenesis and proper brain development. We found that the RNA- binding protein Sam68 (Khdrbs1) is strongly expressed in neurogenic areas of the neocortex and supports the self-renewing potential of mouse NPCs. Knockout of


PubMed | Laboratory of Neuroimmunology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of neuroimmune pharmacology : the official journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Neuroinflammation constitutes a fundamental process involved in the physiopathology of Parkinsons disease (PD). Microglial cells play a central role in the outcome of neuroinflammation and consequent neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Current evidence indicates that CD4+ T-cells infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS) in PD, where they play a critical role determining the functional phenotype of microglia, thus regulating the progression of the neurodegenerative process. Here, we first analysed the pathogenic role of inflammatory phenotypes and the beneficial role of anti-inflammatory phenotypes of encephalitogenic CD4+ T-cells involved in the physiopathology of PD. Next, we discussed how alterations of neurotransmitter levels observed in the basal ganglia throughout the time course of PD progression could be strongly affecting the behaviour of encephalitogenic CD4+ T-cells and thereby the outcome of the neuroinflammatory process and the consequent neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Afterward, we integrated the evidence indicating the involvement of an antigen-specific immune response mediated by T-cells and B-cells against CNS-derived self-constituents in PD. Consistent with the involvement of a relevant autoimmune component in PD, we also reviewed the polymorphisms of both, class I and class II major histocompatibility complexes, associated to the risk of PD. Overall, this study gives an overview of how an autoimmune component involved in PD plays a fundamental role in the progression of the neurodegenerative process.

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