Thouennon E.,University of Rouen |
Thouennon E.,Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology |
Pierre A.,University of Rouen |
Yon L.,University of Rouen |
Anouar Y.,University of Rouen
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology | Year: 2010
Pheochromocytomas are catecholamine-producing tumors arising from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla or extra-adrenal location. Along with catecholamines, tumoral cells produce and secrete elevated quantities of trophic peptides which are normally released in a regulated manner by the normal adrenal medulla. Among these peptides, the amounts of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), adrenomedullin (AM), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) are particularly high. These peptides can exert endocrine, paracrine or autocrine effects in numerous cell types. In particular, they have been shown to be involved in cell proliferation and survival, catecholamine production and secretion, and angiogenesis. Some of these processes are exacerbated in pheochromocytomas, raising the possibility of the involvement of trophic peptides. Here, we review the expression levels of NPY, PACAP, and AM and theirs receptors in chromaffin cells and pheochromocytomas, and address their possible implication in the adrenal medulla tumorigenesis and malignant development of pheochromocytomas. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
PubMed | Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology and Autonomous University of Barcelona
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Acta neurobiologiae experimentalis | Year: 2016
Ataxias are neurological disorders associated with the degeneration of Purkinje cells (PCs). Homozygous weaver mice (wv/wv) have been proposed as a model for hereditary cerebellar ataxia because they present motor abnormalities and PC loss. To ascertain the physiopathology of the weaver condition, the development of the cerebellar cortex lobes was examined at postnatal day (P): P8, P20 and P90. Three approaches were used: 1) quantitative determination of several cerebellar features; 2) qualitative evaluation of the developmental changes occurring in the cortical lobes; and 3) autoradiographic analyses of PC generation and placement. Our results revealed a reduction in the size of the wv/wv cerebellum as a whole, confirming previous results. However, as distinguished from these reports, we observed that quantified parameters contribute differently to the abnormal growth of the wv/wv cerebellar lobes. Qualitative analysis showed anomalies in wv/wv cerebellar cytoarchitecture, depending on the age and lobe analyzed. Such abnormalities included the presence of the external granular layer after P20 and, at P90, ectopic cells located in the molecular layer following several placement patterns. Finally, we obtained autoradiographic evidence that wild-type and wv/wv PCs presented similar neurogenetic timetables, as reported. However, the innovative character of this current work lies in the fact that the neurogenetic gradients of wv/wv PCs were not modified from P8 to P90. A tendency for the accumulation of late-formed PCs in the anterior and posterior lobes was found, whereas early-generated PCs were concentrated in the central and inferior lobes. These data suggested that wv/wv PCs may migrate properly to their final destinations. The extrapolation of our results to patients affected with cerebellar ataxias suggests that all cerebellar cortex lobes are affected with several age-dependent alterations in cytoarchitectonics. We also propose that PC loss may be regionally variable and not related to their neurogenetic timetables.