Tirotta I.,Laboratory of Nanostructured Fluorinated Materials NFMLab |
Tirotta I.,Polytechnic of Milan |
Dichiarante V.,Laboratory of Nanostructured Fluorinated Materials NFMLab |
Dichiarante V.,Polytechnic of Milan |
And 14 more authors.
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2015
Fluorine magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) is one of the most promising among those that do not use radioactive nuclides or ionizing radiations. FMRI agents have been grouped in the following paragraphs according to their chemical structure and divided in three broad groups: molecular tracers, polymers, and (hyper) branched derivatives. Undoubtedly, its strongest trait is the solid possibility of becoming a mean of targeted early diagnosis. The feasibility of developing accurately tailored agents able to target specific biomarkers or cells, thus reaching selected organs and/or tissues, has been extensively proved. The hot-spot kind of images provided by 19F MRI can be associated with those targets and anatomically interpreted by their superimposition to images from full-body 1H MRI. Several research efforts on quantitative 19F MRI have focused on stimuli-responsive or on-off applications, where the NMR signal of fluorinated contrast agents can be selectively activated by an external stimulus.