Laboratory of Molecular Systematics

Copenhagen, Denmark

Laboratory of Molecular Systematics

Copenhagen, Denmark
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Padilla-Gil D.N.,University of Narino | Damgaard J.,Laboratory of Molecular Systematics
Zootaxa | Year: 2011

Potamobates tumaquensis n. sp. from Colombia is described and its phylogenetic relationships and biogeographical characteristics discussed. An updated identification key to Potamobates species is also provided.Copyright © 2011 Magnolia Press.

Topfer T.,Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden | Haring E.,Laboratory of Molecular Systematics | Birkhead T.R.,University of Sheffield | Severinghaus L.L.,Biodiversity Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2011

We present a molecular phylogeny of bullfinches (Pyrrhula Brisson, 1760) based on 2357. bp DNA sequence information of mitochondrial genes (cyt-b, 16S rRNA) and nuclear introns (fib-7, GAPDH-11). The genus is clearly a monophyletic group. Within the limits of Pyrrhula, molecular methods support the subdivision of three main groups: (1) " Southeast-Asian bullfinches" (P. nipalensis and P. leucogenis), (2) " Himalayan bullfinches" (P. aurantiaca, P. erythaca, P. erythrocephala), and (3) " Eurasian bullfinches" (P. pyrrhula s.l.). Within the last group there are four different subgroups: (3a) P. (p.) murina, (3b) P. (p.) cineracea, (3c) P. (p.) griseiventris, and (3d) P. pyrrhula s.str. The centre of origin of the genus Pyrrhula was most probably Southeast Asia. Incomplete lineage sorting of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes is observed among two apparently good species (P. erythaca and P. erythrocephala) indicating a very recent speciation event within the Himalayan Mountain chain. According to our estimates, the Pyrrhula ancestors split from the Pinicola ancestors before the Pleistocene. Apart from the subsequent Pre-Pleistocene splits of the three ancestral main groups, most of the diversification of today's representatives probably took place during the past 600,000. years, possibly in interaction with Pleistocene refugia and successive colonization movements after the last glaciation. Thus our work confirms the traditional delimitation of the bullfinches towards the other members of the finch family Fringillidae and corroborates most of the classic intra-generic subdivisions. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Jorgensen A.,Laboratory of Molecular Systematics | Kristensen R.M.,Copenhagen University
Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research | Year: 2011

The heterotardigrade family Echiniscidae consists of 12 currently recognized genera that are generally represented by few species with the exception of the genera Echiniscus and Pseudechiniscus, which have numerous species. The echiniscids inhabit a wide variety of different moss and lichen substrates. Phylogenetic relationships within the Echiniscidae have previously been investigated using morphological characters. This study includes molecular data from the nuclear 18S and 28S genes and the mitochondrial COI gene, as well as the morphological data to investigate the incongruence between the studies by Kristensen (1987) and Jørgensen (2000) and between morphology and molecules. The arthrotardigrades Batillipes and Florarctus and the echiniscoideans Echiniscoides and Oreella have been included as out-groups and ten genera of echiniscids as the in-group in the phylogenetic analyses. The data sets were analysed individually and combined with Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony. In this study, Echiniscidae was always inferred to be monophyletic in analyses of the combined data set (18S, 28S and morphology) excluding COI. The analyses inferred a 'Pseudechiniscus lineage' not including Mopsechiniscus. Furthermore, the inferred 'Pseudechiniscus lineage' only included part of the Pseudechiniscus species making the genus polyphyletic. The five Echiniscus species, which were included in the analysis, were monophyletic and sister-group to Testechiniscus (COI had Echiniscus paraphyletic). The clade [Hypechiniscus, (Echiniscus + Testechinsicus)] was also well supported. Parechiniscus was inferred to be the sister-group to all other echiniscid taxa, a phylogenetic position that corresponds well with its weakly sclerotized dorsal plates. Echiniscoidea was not inferred to be monophyletic in contradiction to recently phylogenetic analyses focused on Arthrotardigrada. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Solorzano Kraemer M.M.,Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum | Perrichot V.,CNRS Geosciences Laboratory of Rennes | Soriano C.,European Synchrotron Radiation Facility | Damgaard J.,Laboratory of Molecular Systematics
Systematic Entomology | Year: 2014

Fossil gerromorphan bugs from the Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian boundary) amber of Charentes, SW France, are reviewed. A larva described by Perrichot et al. (2005) as incertae familiae within the Gerromorpha is now placed in the Mesoveliidae. Three new genera and species are also described and illustrated: Emilianovelia audax Solórzano Kraemer & Perrichot, gen. et sp.n., and Malenavelia videris Solórzano Kraemer & Perrichot, gen. et sp.n., which are placed in the Mesoveliidae: Mesoveliinae; and Arcantivelia petraudi Solórzano Kraemer & Perrichot, gen. et sp.n., which is the first Mesozoic member of the Veliinae. The relationships between these fossils and their palaeoecology are discussed. The new discoveries confirm the antiquity of the semi-aquatic gerromorphans, particularly the clade (Veliidae+Gerridae). The habitat is described as aquatic and likely marine-influenced, yet adaptation to a fully marine habitat in these gerromorphans remains difficult to establish. This published work has been registered in ZooBank, © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

Faurby S.,University of California at Los Angeles | Faurby S.,University of Aarhus | Jorgensen A.,Laboratory of Molecular Systematics | Kristensen R.M.,Zoological Museum | Funch P.,University of Aarhus
Journal of Biogeography | Year: 2012

Aim To analyse the importance of climatic and geographical isolation in determining the patterns of speciation and distribution of species within the tardigrade genus Echiniscoides. Location Marine intertidal zone, globally. Methods DNA was extracted from 465 individual tardigrades from 48 localities world-wide. The tardigrades were divided into clusters using several distance-based criteria. The phylogeny of these clusters was estimated with Bayesian analyses. The relationships between genetic distance and substrate, climate, and geographical distance were tested with a new improved Mantel test which incorporates phylogenetic uncertainties by analysing the raw tree data instead of the averaged tree. Results Approximately 40 clusters, each probably corresponding to species, were recovered from the genetic analysis; the number of clusters fluctuated depending on the criterion used for cluster delimitation. Each cluster had a limited temperature range and all clusters were confined to single oceans under all realistic criteria for cluster delimitation. Apart from a tropical cluster, each cluster occurred only in one hemisphere. Occurrence on different substrata was not correlated with genetic distance between clusters. Both geographical distance and climate were correlated with genetic distance; however, the correlation between geographical and genetic distance disappeared when the non-independence of climatic and geographical distance were controlled for. Main conclusions The distribution of individual species of Echiniscoides is limited by climate and geographical distance. Distance does not appear to be a major factor influencing phylogeny in this genus, but ecological speciation along a temperature gradient appears to be important. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Faurby S.,University of California at Los Angeles | Faurby S.,University of Aarhus | Jorgensen A.,Laboratory of Molecular Systematics | Kristensen R.M.,Zoological Museum | Funch P.,University of Aarhus
Journal of Biogeography | Year: 2011

Aim To analyse the phylogeographical history of intertidal tardigrades in the North Atlantic in order to improve our understanding of geographical differentiation in microscopic organisms, and to understand the potential importance of the Mid-Atlantic Islands as stepping stones between the American and European coasts of the Atlantic Ocean. Location Twenty-four localities from the Mid-Atlantic Islands (Greenland, Iceland and the Faroe Islands) and both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean. Methods A mitochondrial marker (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) was sequenced from individual tardigrades belonging to the genus Echiniscoides. The existence of cryptic species was detected using generalized mixed Yule coalescence analysis; lineage ages were estimated with relaxed clock methods; and the degree of geographical differentiation was analysed with samova analyses, haplotype networks and Mantel tests. Results Echiniscoides hoepneri, previously known only from Greenland, was recovered throughout the Mid-Atlantic Islands. The Faroe Islands population was isolated from Greenland and Iceland, but overall genetic variation was low. The morphospecies Echiniscoides sigismundi had high genetic variation and consisted of at least two cryptic species. A northern and a southern species were both recovered on both sides of the Atlantic, but only the northern species was found on the Mid-Atlantic Islands. The northern species showed signs of long-term isolation between the Western and Eastern Atlantic, despite the potential of the Mid-Atlantic islands to act as stepping-stones. There was no sign of long-term isolation in the southern species. The Mid-Atlantic individuals of the northern species were of Eastern Atlantic origin, but Greenland and Iceland showed signs of long-term isolation. The genetic pattern found in the southern species is not clearly geographical, and can probably be best explained by secondary contact between former isolated populations. Main conclusions North Atlantic intertidal tardigrades from the genus Echiniscoides showed strong geographical differentiation, and the Mid-Atlantic Islands seemed unimportant as stepping stones across the Atlantic. The geographical variation of the northern species of E. sigismundi suggests post-glacial recolonization from several refugia. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Haring E.,Laboratory of Molecular Systematics | Haring E.,University of Vienna | Aspock H.,Medical University of Vienna | Bartel D.,Laboratory of Molecular Systematics | And 3 more authors.
Systematic Entomology | Year: 2011

We present a molecular phylogeny of the family Raphidiidae including representatives of 21 of the 26 genera. Sequences from the nuclear gene for the large subunit ribosomal RNA (28S rRNA) and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3 gene (cox3) were used. For the phylogenetic reconstructions we applied automated and manual approaches for sequence alignment and different evolutionary models and tree building algorithms. The trees based on the two alignment approaches were rather similar in their overall topology. A combination of both marker sequences increased the resolution of the trees. The six clades within the raphidiid family that emerged represent either single genera or groups of genera, namely: (i) the Nearctic genus Agulla Navás, (ii) the Nearctic/Central American genus Alena Navás, (iii) the Central Asiatic and Eastern Palaearctic genus Mongoloraphidia H. Aspöck & U. Aspöck, (iv) the Palaearctic Puncha clade, (v) the western Mediterranean Ohmella clade, and (vi) the Palaearctic Phaeostigma clade. The New World taxa Agulla and Alena are placed as successive out-groups to a monophyletic Palaearctic clade. The Mongoloraphidia clade is distributed in the eastern Palearctic while the remaining three clades are exclusively (Ohmella clade) or mainly distributed in the western Palaearctic. The early radiation of extant Raphidiidae is interpreted based on the phylogenetic tree obtained in the present study, and the geological and palaeobiological processes around the K-T boundary. © 2010 The Authors. Systematic Entomology © 2010 The Royal Entomological Society.

Kruckenhauser L.,Laboratory of Molecular Systematics | Haring E.,Laboratory of Molecular Systematics | Sattmann H.,Museum of Natural History Vienna
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2011

Background: Phenotypic similarities among cave-dwelling animals displaying troglomorphic characters (e.g. reduced eyes and lack of pigmentation) have induced a long-term discussion about the forces driving convergent evolution. Here we introduce Garra barreimiae Fowler & Steinitz, 1956, as an interesting system to study the evolution of troglomorphic characters. The only hitherto known troglomorphic population of this species lives in Al Hoota Cave (Sultanate of Oman) close to a surface population. As a first approach, we assessed the genetic differentiation between the two morphotypes of G. barreimiae to determine whether gene flow still occurs. Results: We analysed the mitochondrial control region (CR). In G. barreimiae the CR starts immediately downstream of the tRNA-Thr gene, while the tRNA-Pro gene is missing at this genomic location. Interestingly, a putative tRNA-Pro sequence is found within the CR. The phylogenetic analyses of the CR sequences yielded a tree divided into three clades: Clade 1 has a high genetic distance to the other clades and contains the individuals of three populations which are separated by a watershed from all the others. Clade 2 comprises the individuals from Wadi Bani Khalid, the geographically most remote population. Clade 3 comprises all other populations investigated including that of Al Hoota Cave. The latter forms a haplogroup which also includes individuals from the adjacent surface population. Conclusions: Our data indicates that the troglomorphic cave population is of quite recent origin supporting the hypothesis that selection drives the fast evolution of troglomorphic traits. In this context pleiotropic effects might play an important role as it has been shown for Astyanax. There seems to be some gene flow from the cave population into the adjacent surface populations. One blind individual, found at a surface locality geographically distinct from Al Hoota Cave, is genetically differentiated from the other blind specimens indicating the probable existence of another cave population of G. barreimiae. The phylogeographic analyses show that while some of the surface populations are either still in contact or have been until recently, the population Wadi Bani Khalid is genetically separated. One group consisting of three populations is genetically highly differentiated questioning the conspecifity with G. barreimiae. © 2011 Kruckenhauser et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Damgaard J.,Laboratory of Molecular Systematics
Entomologica Americana | Year: 2012

The present study summarizes knowledge about phylogenetic relationships of the heteropteran infraorder Gerromorpha. A phylogeny for all families and subfamilies, and for all genera but those assigned to the two most diverse families, Veliidae and Gerridae, is compiled from the many studies by the late Dr. Nils Møller Andersen. Comparisons with recently published studies, including DNA sequence data show that the superfamilies Hydrometroidea and Gerroidea, the family Veliidae, the subfamily Mesoveliinae, and the genera Mesovelia and Microvelia are probably not monophyletic, and that Paraphrynoveliidae, Gerridae, Madeoveliinae, Ocelloveliinae, Veliinae, Haloveliinae and Gerrinae are without convincing diagnostic morphological characters. In Gerridae, phylogenetic hypotheses are available for most subfamilies, and are evaluated against more recent studies indicating that the tribes Metrocorini and Metrobatini, and even well-known genera, such as Aquarius, Limnometra, Tenagogonus and Halobates, are not monophyletic. As taxonomic classifications should be based on observable morphological characters, and at the same time reflect phylogenetic relationships, a considerable task lays ahead in obtaining material of key taxa for DNA sequencing, and in identifying and redescribing clades based on new combinations of diagnostic characters. © 2012 New York Entomological Society.

Guilbert E.,CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute | Damgaard J.,Laboratory of Molecular Systematics | D'Haese C.A.,CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute
Systematic Entomology | Year: 2014

A phylogeny of the Tingidae is provided on the basis of parsimony analysis with pre-alignment as well as with direct optimization of 2018bp from five loci (COI, Leu-tRNA, COII, 16S and 28S) and a set of 30 morphological characters. The results obtained with either direct optimization or pre-alignment methods of parsimony clearly show that Cantacaderinae are sister group to (Phatnominae+Tinginae). Several apomorphies, retrieved in different studies, characterize Cantacaderinae, Phatnominae and Tinginae, but only one characterizes the grouping of Phatnominae+Tinginae. In addition, no clear tribal division as currently used was highlighted within the Tinginae. The results are discussed in the light of earlier morphologically based hypotheses. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

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