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Solorzano Kraemer M.M.,Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum | Perrichot V.,CNRS Geosciences Laboratory of Rennes | Soriano C.,European Synchrotron Radiation Facility | Damgaard J.,Laboratory of Molecular Systematics
Systematic Entomology | Year: 2014

Fossil gerromorphan bugs from the Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian boundary) amber of Charentes, SW France, are reviewed. A larva described by Perrichot et al. (2005) as incertae familiae within the Gerromorpha is now placed in the Mesoveliidae. Three new genera and species are also described and illustrated: Emilianovelia audax Solórzano Kraemer & Perrichot, gen. et sp.n., and Malenavelia videris Solórzano Kraemer & Perrichot, gen. et sp.n., which are placed in the Mesoveliidae: Mesoveliinae; and Arcantivelia petraudi Solórzano Kraemer & Perrichot, gen. et sp.n., which is the first Mesozoic member of the Veliinae. The relationships between these fossils and their palaeoecology are discussed. The new discoveries confirm the antiquity of the semi-aquatic gerromorphans, particularly the clade (Veliidae+Gerridae). The habitat is described as aquatic and likely marine-influenced, yet adaptation to a fully marine habitat in these gerromorphans remains difficult to establish. This published work has been registered in ZooBank, http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:F8C034B8-7BD0-4C03-B8FC-CD81D75C7001. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

Damgaard J.,Laboratory of Molecular Systematics
Entomologica Americana | Year: 2012

The present study summarizes knowledge about phylogenetic relationships of the heteropteran infraorder Gerromorpha. A phylogeny for all families and subfamilies, and for all genera but those assigned to the two most diverse families, Veliidae and Gerridae, is compiled from the many studies by the late Dr. Nils Møller Andersen. Comparisons with recently published studies, including DNA sequence data show that the superfamilies Hydrometroidea and Gerroidea, the family Veliidae, the subfamily Mesoveliinae, and the genera Mesovelia and Microvelia are probably not monophyletic, and that Paraphrynoveliidae, Gerridae, Madeoveliinae, Ocelloveliinae, Veliinae, Haloveliinae and Gerrinae are without convincing diagnostic morphological characters. In Gerridae, phylogenetic hypotheses are available for most subfamilies, and are evaluated against more recent studies indicating that the tribes Metrocorini and Metrobatini, and even well-known genera, such as Aquarius, Limnometra, Tenagogonus and Halobates, are not monophyletic. As taxonomic classifications should be based on observable morphological characters, and at the same time reflect phylogenetic relationships, a considerable task lays ahead in obtaining material of key taxa for DNA sequencing, and in identifying and redescribing clades based on new combinations of diagnostic characters. © 2012 New York Entomological Society.

Topfer T.,Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden | Haring E.,Laboratory of Molecular Systematics | Birkhead T.R.,University of Sheffield | Severinghaus L.L.,Biodiversity Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2011

We present a molecular phylogeny of bullfinches (Pyrrhula Brisson, 1760) based on 2357. bp DNA sequence information of mitochondrial genes (cyt-b, 16S rRNA) and nuclear introns (fib-7, GAPDH-11). The genus is clearly a monophyletic group. Within the limits of Pyrrhula, molecular methods support the subdivision of three main groups: (1) " Southeast-Asian bullfinches" (P. nipalensis and P. leucogenis), (2) " Himalayan bullfinches" (P. aurantiaca, P. erythaca, P. erythrocephala), and (3) " Eurasian bullfinches" (P. pyrrhula s.l.). Within the last group there are four different subgroups: (3a) P. (p.) murina, (3b) P. (p.) cineracea, (3c) P. (p.) griseiventris, and (3d) P. pyrrhula s.str. The centre of origin of the genus Pyrrhula was most probably Southeast Asia. Incomplete lineage sorting of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes is observed among two apparently good species (P. erythaca and P. erythrocephala) indicating a very recent speciation event within the Himalayan Mountain chain. According to our estimates, the Pyrrhula ancestors split from the Pinicola ancestors before the Pleistocene. Apart from the subsequent Pre-Pleistocene splits of the three ancestral main groups, most of the diversification of today's representatives probably took place during the past 600,000. years, possibly in interaction with Pleistocene refugia and successive colonization movements after the last glaciation. Thus our work confirms the traditional delimitation of the bullfinches towards the other members of the finch family Fringillidae and corroborates most of the classic intra-generic subdivisions. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Faurby S.,University of California at Los Angeles | Faurby S.,University of Aarhus | Jorgensen A.,Laboratory of Molecular Systematics | Kristensen R.M.,Zoological Museum | Funch P.,University of Aarhus
Journal of Biogeography | Year: 2012

Aim To analyse the importance of climatic and geographical isolation in determining the patterns of speciation and distribution of species within the tardigrade genus Echiniscoides. Location Marine intertidal zone, globally. Methods DNA was extracted from 465 individual tardigrades from 48 localities world-wide. The tardigrades were divided into clusters using several distance-based criteria. The phylogeny of these clusters was estimated with Bayesian analyses. The relationships between genetic distance and substrate, climate, and geographical distance were tested with a new improved Mantel test which incorporates phylogenetic uncertainties by analysing the raw tree data instead of the averaged tree. Results Approximately 40 clusters, each probably corresponding to species, were recovered from the genetic analysis; the number of clusters fluctuated depending on the criterion used for cluster delimitation. Each cluster had a limited temperature range and all clusters were confined to single oceans under all realistic criteria for cluster delimitation. Apart from a tropical cluster, each cluster occurred only in one hemisphere. Occurrence on different substrata was not correlated with genetic distance between clusters. Both geographical distance and climate were correlated with genetic distance; however, the correlation between geographical and genetic distance disappeared when the non-independence of climatic and geographical distance were controlled for. Main conclusions The distribution of individual species of Echiniscoides is limited by climate and geographical distance. Distance does not appear to be a major factor influencing phylogeny in this genus, but ecological speciation along a temperature gradient appears to be important. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Faurby S.,University of California at Los Angeles | Faurby S.,University of Aarhus | Jorgensen A.,Laboratory of Molecular Systematics | Kristensen R.M.,Zoological Museum | Funch P.,University of Aarhus
Journal of Biogeography | Year: 2011

Aim To analyse the phylogeographical history of intertidal tardigrades in the North Atlantic in order to improve our understanding of geographical differentiation in microscopic organisms, and to understand the potential importance of the Mid-Atlantic Islands as stepping stones between the American and European coasts of the Atlantic Ocean. Location Twenty-four localities from the Mid-Atlantic Islands (Greenland, Iceland and the Faroe Islands) and both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean. Methods A mitochondrial marker (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) was sequenced from individual tardigrades belonging to the genus Echiniscoides. The existence of cryptic species was detected using generalized mixed Yule coalescence analysis; lineage ages were estimated with relaxed clock methods; and the degree of geographical differentiation was analysed with samova analyses, haplotype networks and Mantel tests. Results Echiniscoides hoepneri, previously known only from Greenland, was recovered throughout the Mid-Atlantic Islands. The Faroe Islands population was isolated from Greenland and Iceland, but overall genetic variation was low. The morphospecies Echiniscoides sigismundi had high genetic variation and consisted of at least two cryptic species. A northern and a southern species were both recovered on both sides of the Atlantic, but only the northern species was found on the Mid-Atlantic Islands. The northern species showed signs of long-term isolation between the Western and Eastern Atlantic, despite the potential of the Mid-Atlantic islands to act as stepping-stones. There was no sign of long-term isolation in the southern species. The Mid-Atlantic individuals of the northern species were of Eastern Atlantic origin, but Greenland and Iceland showed signs of long-term isolation. The genetic pattern found in the southern species is not clearly geographical, and can probably be best explained by secondary contact between former isolated populations. Main conclusions North Atlantic intertidal tardigrades from the genus Echiniscoides showed strong geographical differentiation, and the Mid-Atlantic Islands seemed unimportant as stepping stones across the Atlantic. The geographical variation of the northern species of E. sigismundi suggests post-glacial recolonization from several refugia. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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