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Jardim B.V.,Paulista University | Moschetta M.G.,Research Unit Genetics and Molecular Biology | Gelaleti G.B.,Paulista University | Leonel C.,Sao Paulo State University | And 5 more authors.
Acta Histochemica | Year: 2012

Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women worldwide. Prognostic markers are important for diagnosis, allowing therapeutic strategies to be defined more efficiently. The expression of the glutathione S-transferase pi isoenzyme (GSTpi) in tumor cells has been evaluated as a predictor of prognosis and in response to cytotoxic treatments. Its immunoexpression was assessed in 63 women diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma in a retrospective study. The results were statistically correlated with clinicopathological parameters of patients. The results showed that high GSTpi expression was related to p53-positive tumors, grade III histology, large tumor size and death (p< 0.05). The 37 patients who received adjuvant treatment, checked separately, showed high expression of GSTpi in relation to local recurrence, metastasis and death (p< 0.05). In addition, high levels of GSTpi expression were significantly associated with a shorter overall survival (p< 0.05). To confirm this suspicion, GSTpi gene expression was checked by Real-time PCR in neoplastic mammary cells cultured and subjected to treatment with doxorubicin. Our results suggest that high levels of GSTpi may be related to the development of resistance to chemotherapy in these tumors, the response of these tumors to treatment and the clinical course of the patients involved. © 2011. Source


Leonel C.,Paulista University | Castro R.,Postgraduate Program in Health science | Gelaleti G.B.,Paulista University | Jardim B.V.,Paulista University | And 6 more authors.
Acta Histochemica | Year: 2012

The use of prognostic markers for breast cancer is important for routine diagnosis and research. Interleukin-8 is a chemotactic cytokine produced by several cell types in response to inflammation, however, its expression, regulation and function are poorly understood. Recent studies have associated angiogenesis and inflammatory processes with tumor malignancy. The present study investigated the correlation between interleukin-8 expression and breast cancer prognosis. Interleukin-8 expression was assessed in 72 women with mammary neoplasia by immunohistochemistry and the results were statistically correlated with clinical-pathological findings. There was an inverse correlation between interleukin-8 expression and metastasis (. p=. 0.03) and/or local recurrence (. p=. 0.02). In the patient group that received post-surgery chemotherapy and radiotherapy, a lower interleukin-8 expression was found in those women that showed local recurrence (. p=. 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression showed estrogen receptor negativity, progesterone positivity and metastasis with increased risk of death (. p<. 0.05). The data reflect the complexity of the role of interleukin-8 in tumor microenvironment and support its classification as a possible prognostic marker, although more studies are necessary for its inclusion in clinical practice. © 2011 . Source


Jardim B.V.,Sao Paulo State University | Jardim B.V.,Laboratory of Molecular Research in Cancer LIMC | Moschetta M.G.,Laboratory of Molecular Research in Cancer LIMC | Leonel C.,Sao Paulo State University | And 9 more authors.
Oncology Reports | Year: 2013

The use of prognostic markers for breast cancer allows therapeutic strategies to be defined more efficiently. The expression of glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in tumor cells has been evaluated as a predictor of prognosis and response to cytotoxic treatments. Its immunoexpression was assessed in 63 women diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma in a retrospective study. The results showed that high GSH expression was associated with tumors negative for the estrogen receptor (ER) (P<0.05), and GPX expression was associated with tumors negative for the progesterone receptor (PR) and patient mortality. Focusing on the 37 patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy/radiotherapy (Group I), high expression of GPX was associated with a high rate of patient mortality (P<0.05). The 19 patients who received only adjuvant chemotherapy (Group II) showed high expression of GSH in relation to metastasis (P<0.05). In addition, high levels of GPX expression were significantly associated with a shorter overall survival (P<0.05). To confirm this, the expression of precursor genes of GSH [glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLC) and glutathione synthetase (GSS)] and the GPX gene was analyzed using quantitative PCR in cultured neoplastic mammary cells treated with doxorubicin. Doxorubicin treatment was able to eliminate tumor cells without alterations in the gene expression of GSS, but led to underexpression of the GCLC and GPX genes. Our results suggest that high levels of GPX may be related to the development of resistance to chemotherapy in these tumors, response to treatment and the clinical course of the breast cancer patients. Source


Lopes J.R.,Sao Paulo State University | Lopes J.R.,Laboratory of Molecular Research in Cancer LIMC | Maschio L.B.,Sao Paulo State University | Maschio L.B.,Laboratory of Molecular Research in Cancer LIMC | And 9 more authors.
Oncology Reports | Year: 2015

Mammary neoplasias are the most common tumors observed in female dogs. Identification of these tumors is valuable in order to identify beneficial therapeutic agents as alternative treatments for this tumor type. Oral administration of melatonin appears to exert an oncostatic effect on mammary neoplasia and may have a possible mechanism of action through its interaction with estrogen receptors on epithelial cells. Hence, we analyzed the potential therapeutic value of melatonin in tumors that are estrogen-dependent or-independent, and established a relationship of its action with the expression of the melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2. Furthermore, we analyzed the rate of cell proliferation and apoptosis after treatment with melatonin. Cell cultures were performed using 10 canine mammary tumor fragments and were divided into estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and ER-negative tumors. The results showed that both ER-positive and ER-negative tumors had decreased cell viability and proliferation after treatment with melatonin (p<0.05), although treatment was more effective in the ER-positive tumors. Analysis of the relative expression of the MT1 and MT2 genes by quantitative PCR was performed and the data were compared with the expression of ER in 24 canine mammary tumors and the cellular response to melatonin in 10 samples. MT1 was overexpressed in ER-positive tumors (p<0.05), whereas MT2 was not expressed. Furthermore, melatonin treatment in ER-positive tumors showed an efficient oncostatic effect by inhibiting cell viability and proliferation and inducing apoptosis. These results suggest that melatonin decreased neoplastic mammary cell proliferation and viability and induced apoptosis, with greater efficacy in ER-positive tumors that have a high expression of melatonin receptor MT1. This is a strong evidence for the use of melatonin as a therapeutic agent for estrogen-dependent canine mammary tumors. Source

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