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Ponterio E.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Petrizzo A.,Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Viral Oncology | Di Bartolo I.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Buonaguro F.M.,Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Viral Oncology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Translational Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Virus-like particles (VLPs) from an Italian GII.4 norovirus strain were used to investigate activation and maturation of circulating antigen presenting cells (APCs) of human origin.Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from five healthy subjects were pulsed ex vivo with VLPs, and stained with a set of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for phenotypic analysis by flow cytometry. Cytokine release in cell supernatants was investigated by ELISA.Results: Norovirus VLPs induced activation and maturation of circulating APCs derived from the five donors, as well as production of IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α cytokines.Conclusions: The present results suggest that VLPs can activate antigen presenting cells for an efficient induction of the adaptive immune response. © 2013 Ponterio et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Ungaro F.,University of Naples Federico II | Conte C.,University of Naples Federico II | Quaglia F.,University of Naples Federico II | Tornesello M.L.,Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Viral Oncology | And 2 more authors.
Expert Review of Vaccines | Year: 2013

Effective delivery of tumor antigens to APCs is one of the key steps for eliciting a strong and durable immune response to tumors. Several cancer vaccines have been evaluated in clinical trials, based on soluble peptides, but results have not been fully satisfactory. To improve immunogenicity particles provide a valid strategy to display and/or incorporate epitopes which can be efficiently targeted to APCs for effective induction of adaptive immunity. In the present review, we report some leading technologies for developing particulate vaccines employed in cancer immunotherapy, highlighting the key parameters for a rational design to elicit both humoral and cellular responses. © © 2013 Informa UK Ltd. Source


Tagliamonte M.,Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Viral Oncology | Petrizzo A.,Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Viral Oncology | Tornesello M.L.,Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Viral Oncology | Ciliberto G.,Italian National Cancer Institute | And 2 more authors.
Current Opinion in Immunology | Year: 2016

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common liver malignancy. The prognosis for HCC patients greatly varies according to the stage at diagnosis. Overall it is poor, with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 5-6%.Immunotherapeutic interventions represent a novel and effective therapeutic tool. However, only few immunotherapy trials for HCC have been conducted so far with contrasting results, suggesting that significant improvements are needed. Indeed, the liver is characterized by a strong intrinsic immune suppressive microenvironment which needs to be counterbalanced with immune stimulatory approaches. Therefore, the implementation of combinatorial protocols combining immune stimulatory strategies with specific immunotherapy approaches could result in a dramatic improvement of efficacy and clinical outcome in HCC patients.The present review aims at describing the state of the art in immunotherapy strategies for HCC and future perspectives. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Buonaguro L.,Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Viral Oncology | Petrizzo A.,Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Viral Oncology | Tagliamonte M.,Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Viral Oncology | Tornesello M.L.,Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Viral Oncology | Buonaguro F.M.,Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Viral Oncology
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2013

Summary Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common liver malignancy, representing the third and fifth leading cause of death from cancer worldwide in men and women, respectively. The main risk factor for the development of HCC is the hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV) infection; non-viral causes (e.g., alcoholism and aflatoxin) are additional risk factors. HCC prognosis is generally poor because of the low effectiveness of available treatments and the overall 5-year survival rate is approximately 5-6%. In this framework, immunotherapeutic interventions, including cancer vaccines, may represent a novel and effective therapeutic tool. However, only few immunotherapy trials for HCC have been conducted so far with contrasting results, suggesting that improvements in several aspects of the immunotherapy approaches need to be implemented. In particular, identification of novel specific tumor antigens and evaluation of most advanced combinatorial strategies could result in unprecedented clinical outcomes with great beneficial effect for HCC patients. The state of the art in immunotherapy strategies for HCC and future perspectives are reported in the present review. © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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