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Papoutsou S.,Research and Education Institute of Child Health | Briassoulis G.,University of Crete | Wolters M.,Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology BIPS GmbH | Peplies J.,Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology BIPS GmbH | And 8 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2014

Background/Objectives: Limited data exist regarding breakfast consumption and its association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. This study investigates the relationship between breakfast routine and CVD risk factors in a multinational sample. Subjects/Methods: Cross-sectional data from eight European countries participating in the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) survey (2007-2008) were used. The sample included children 2 to < 10 years of age (n = 8863, 51.2% boys). The Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression were used to assess CVD risk factors among no breakfast (NBrH), occasional breakfast and daily breakfast at home (DBrH) consumption. Results: Male school-aged NBrH consumers, compared with DBrH consumers, were more likely to be overweight/obese (odds ratio (OR): 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-1.79), to have higher risk for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels lower than 40 mg/dl (OR: 1.69, 95% CI = 1.24-2.30), triglycerides (TG) above 75 mg/dl (OR: 1.65, 95% CI = 1.24-2.19) and sum of skinfolds greater than the 90th percentile (OR: 1.32, 95% CI = 1.0-1.76). Female school-aged NBrH consumers compared with DBrH consumers had a higher risk for waist circumference greater than the 90th percentile (OR: 1.70, 95% CI = 1.14-2.51), HDL cholesterol levels lower than 40 mg/dl (OR: 1.65, 95% CI = 1.23-2.21), TG above 75 mg/dl (OR: 1.65, 95% CI = 1.26-2.17) and total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio > 3.5 (OR: 1.39, 95% CI = 1.09-1.77). Results remained significant after adjusting for daily physical activity in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) periods (in min/day). Male DBrH consumers, 6 to < 10 years of age, had longer daily periods of MVPA compared with NBrH consumers (32.0 ± 21.4 vs 27.5 ± 18.8, P < 0.05). For preschoolers, breakfast consumption was negatively associated with CVD risk factors but results of regression models were mostly insignificant. Conclusions: Daily breakfast consumption contributes to controlling school-aged children's weight and lipid profile and promotes higher PA. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

Loffredo L.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Perri L.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Di Castelnuovo A.,Laboratory of Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology | Iacoviello L.,Laboratory of Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology | And 2 more authors.
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases | Year: 2015

Background and aims: Previous meta-analyses of interventional trials with vitamin E provided negative results but it remains unclear if this vitamin has some influence on cardiovascular events when supplemented alone. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of vitamin E alone or in combination with other antioxidants on myocardial infarction. Methods and results: Pubmed, ISI Web of Science, SCOPUS and Cochrane database were searched without language restrictions. We investigated randomized clinical trials studying the effect of vitamin E supplementation on myocardial infarction. Sixteen randomized controlled trials of vitamin E treatment were analyzed in this meta-analysis. The dose range for vitamin E was 33-800. IU. Follow-up ranged from 0.5 to 9.4 years. Compared to controls, vitamin E given alone significantly decreased myocardial infarction (3.0% vs 3.4%) (random effects R.R.: 0.82; 95% C.I., 0.70-0.96; p=0.01). This effect was driven by reduction of fatal myocardial infarction (random effects R.R.: 0.84; 95% C.I., 0.73-0.96; p=0.01). Conclusions: When supplemented alone, vitamin E reduces myocardial infarction in interventional trials while it appears ineffective when associated with other antioxidants. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Montali A.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Truglio G.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Martino F.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Ceci F.,University of Rome La Sapienza | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The precursors of atherogenic dyslipidemia (AD) are not well defined. Therefore, we investigated 62 non-obese, non-diabetic AD and 221 normolipemic children. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure and biochemical measures were obtained in index children, their parents and all available siblings. The heritability (h2) of anthropometric and biochemical traits was estimated by SOLAR. Rare and common variants in APOA1 and LPL genes were screened by re-sequencing. Compared to normolipemic, AD children showed increased body mass index, waist circumference, plasma glucose, insulin, ApoB, HOMA-IR, hs-CRP and lower adiponectin (p<0.001 for all). Metabolic syndrome was present in 40% of AD while absent in controls. All traits (except adiponectin and hs-CRP) showed a strong familial aggregation, with plasma glucose having the highest heritability (89%). Overall, 4 LPLlossof-function mutations were detected (p.Asp9Asn, p.Ser45Asn, p.Asn291Ser, p.Leu365Val) and their cumulative prevalence was higher in AD than in control children (0.073 vs. 0.026; P=0.038). The LPLp.S447∗ gain-of-function mutation, resulted to be less frequent in AD than in control children (0.064 vs. 0.126; P=0.082). No variant in the APOA1gene was found. Our data indicate that AD is a rather common dyslipidemia in childhood; it associates with metabolic abnormalities typical of insulin resistant state and shows a strong familial aggregation. LPLvariants may contribute to the development of AD phenotype. © 2015 Montali et al. Source

Simona C.,Laboratory of Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology | de Katleen G.D.,Catholic University | Lara C.,Catholic University | Olivieri M.,Epicomed Research Srl | And 4 more authors.
Epidemiology Biostatistics and Public Health | Year: 2014

Background: Influenza vaccination protects high-risk populations from severe outcomes.Methods: During the 2011-2012 flu season at "Gemelli Hospital" in Rome, all hospitalised patients who developed suspected influenza-like illness within 14 days were recruited to assess the feasibility of testing the influenza vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed influenza requiring hospitalisation.Conclusions: No difference in vaccine status between patients with positive and negative laboratory tests was found due to the small sample size. Larger numbers are required to explore influenza vaccine effectiveness.Results: Sixty-two patients were recruited; among them, 18 were laboratory confirmed for influenza A or B. In the target group for vaccination (N=47), the prevalence of vaccinated subjects was less than expected (38%). © 2014 Prex S.p.A. All right reserved. Source

De Luca A.,University of Siena | De Luca A.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | de Gaetano Donati K.,Catholic University | Colafigli M.,Catholic University | And 10 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: Elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population, but its role as a predictive marker in HIV-positive patients remains unclear. Aim of the study was to evaluate whether hsCRP or other biomarkers are independent predictors of CVD risk in HIV-infected patients.Methods: Retrospective, nested case-control study. HIV-positive men and women (35-69 years of age) receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) were included. Cases (n = 35) had a major CVD event. Controls (n = 74) free from CVD events for at least 5 years from starting ART were matched on diabetes and smoking. HsCRP, D-dimer, P-selectin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tissue plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were measured.Results: High hsCRP was associated with CVD risk, independently of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, HIV replication and the type of ART received at the time of sampling (adjusted odds ratio 8.00 [1.23-51.94] comparing >3.3 mg/L with <0.9 mg/L; P = 0.03). Higher IL-6 and P-selectin levels were also independently associated with increased CVD risk, although the association was weaker than for hsCRP. Higher total cholesterol and lower HDL cholesterol increased CVD risk, independent of hsCRP.Conclusion: hsCRP may be a useful additional biomarker to predict CVD risk in HIV-infected patients receiving cART. © 2013 De Luca et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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