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Maiese K.,Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Signaling
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity | Year: 2015

The release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the generation of oxidative stress are considered critical factors for the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus (DM), a disorder that is growing in prevalence and results in significant economic loss. New therapeutic directions that address the detrimental effects of oxidative stress may be especially warranted to develop effective care for the millions of individuals that currently suffer from DM. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (S. cerevisiae) (SIRT1), and Wnt1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP1) are especially justified to be considered treatment targets for DM since these pathways can address the complex relationship between stem cells, trophic factors, impaired glucose tolerance, programmed cell death pathways of apoptosis and autophagy, tissue remodeling, cellular energy homeostasis, and vascular biology that greatly impact the biology and disease progression of DM. The translation and development of these pathways into viable therapies will require detailed understanding of their proliferative nature to maximize clinical efficacy and limit adverse effects that have the potential to lead to unintended consequences. © 2015 Kenneth Maiese.

Shang Y.C.,Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Signaling | Shang Y.C.,Health Science University | Chong Z.Z.,Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Signaling | Chong Z.Z.,Health Science University | And 5 more authors.
Aging | Year: 2012

Central nervous system microglia promote neuronal regeneration and sequester toxic β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition during Alzheimer's disease. We show that the cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) decreases the toxic effect of Aβ on microglia in vitro. EPO up-regulates the cysteine-rich glycosylated wingless protein Wnt1 and activates the PI 3-K/Akt1/Mtor/p70S6K pathway. This in turn increases phosphorylation and cytosol trafficking of Bad, reduces the Bad/Bcl-x L complex and increases the Bcl-x L/Bax complex, thus preventing caspase 1 and caspase 3 activation and apoptosis. Our data may foster development of novel strategies to use cytoprotectants such as EPO for Alzheimer's disease and other degenerative disorders. © Shang et al.

Chong Z.Z.,Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Signaling | Chong Z.Z.,Health Science University | Shang Y.C.,Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Signaling | Shang Y.C.,Health Science University | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Emerging strategies that center upon the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling for neurodegenerative disorders may bring effective treatment for a number of difficult disease entities. Here we show that erythropoietin (EPO), a novel agent for nervous system disorders, prevents apoptotic SH-SY5Y cell injury in an oxidative stress model of oxygen-glucose deprivation through phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI 3-K)/protein kinase B (Akt) dependent activation of mTOR signaling and phosphorylation of the downstream pathways of p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K), eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1), and proline rich Akt substrate 40 kDa (PRAS40). PRAS40 is an important regulatory component either alone or in conjunction with EPO signal transduction that can determine cell survival through apoptotic caspase 3 activation. EPO and the PI 3-K/Akt pathways control cell survival and mTOR activity through the inhibitory post-translational phosphorylation of PRAS40 that leads to subcellular binding of PRAS40 to the cytoplasmic docking protein 14-3-3. However, modulation and phosphorylation of PRAS40 is independent of other protective pathways of EPO that involve extracellular signal related kinase (ERK 1/2) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT5). Our studies highlight EPO and PRAS40 signaling in the mTOR pathway as potential therapeutic strategies for development against degenerative disorders that lead to cell demise. © 2012 Chong et al.

Chong Z.Z.,Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Signaling | Chong Z.Z.,Health Science University | Maiese K.,Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Signaling | Maiese K.,University Institute of Health Sciences | Maiese K.,Health Science University
Cardiovascular Diabetology | Year: 2012

Diabetes mellitus currently affects more than 170 million individuals worldwide and is expected to afflict another 200 million individuals in the next 30 years. Complications of diabetes as a result of oxidant stress affect multiple systems throughout the body, but involvement of the cardiovascular system may be one of the most severe in light of the impact upon cardiac and vascular function that can result in rapid morbidity and mortality for individuals. Given these concerns, the signaling pathways of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) offer exciting prospects for the development of novel therapies for the cardiovascular complications of diabetes. In the cardiovascular and metabolic systems, mTOR and its multi-protein complexes of TORC1 and TORC2 regulate insulin release and signaling, endothelial cell survival and growth, cardiomyocyte proliferation, resistance to β-cell injury, and cell longevity. Yet, mTOR can, at times, alter insulin signaling and lead to insulin resistance in the cardiovascular system during diabetes mellitus. It is therefore vital to understand the complex relationship mTOR and its downstream pathways hold during metabolic disease in order to develop novel strategies for the complications of diabetes mellitus in the cardiovascular system. © 2012 Chong and Maiese; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Maiese K.,Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Signaling | Maiese K.,Cancer Institute of New Jersey | Maiese K.,Health Science University | Chong Z.Z.,Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Signaling | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2012

Oxidative stress impacts multiple systems of the body and can lead to some of the most devastating consequences in the nervous system especially during aging. Both acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders such as diabetes mellitus, cerebral ischemia, trauma, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and tuberous sclerosis through programmed cell death pathways of apoptosis and autophagy can be the result of oxidant stress. Novel therapeutic avenues that focus upon the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K), Akt (protein kinase B), and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cascade and related pathways offer exciting prospects to address the onset and potential reversal of neurodegenerative disorders. Effective clinical translation of these pathways into robust therapeutic strategies requires intimate knowledge of the complexity of these pathways and the ability of this cascade to influence biological outcome that can vary among disorders of the nervous system. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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