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Tintino S.R.,Laboratory of Microbiology and Molecular Biology LMBM | Morais-Tintino C.D.,Laboratory of Microbiology and Molecular Biology LMBM | Campina F.F.,Laboratory of Microbiology and Molecular Biology LMBM | Pereira R.L.,Laboratory of Microbiology and Molecular Biology LMBM | And 9 more authors.
EXCLI Journal | Year: 2016

Alpha-tocopherol is one the most abundant and biologically active isoforms of vitamin E. This compound is a potent antioxidant and one of most studied isoforms of vitamin E. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is an important nutrient for calcium homeostasis and bone health, that has also been recognized as a potent modulator of the immune response. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most important causative agent of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of alpha-tocopherol and cholecalciferol on both S. aureus and multidrug resistant S. aureus efflux pumps. The RN4220 strain has the plasmid pUL5054 that is the carrier of gene that encodes the macrolide resistance protein (an efflux pump) MsrA; the IS-58 strain possesses the TetK tetracycline efflux protein in its genome and the 1199B strain resists to hydrophilic fluoroquinolones via a NorA-mediated mechanism. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by determining the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and a possible inhibition of efflux pumps was associated to a reduction of the MIC. In this work we observed that in the presence of the treatments there was a decrease in the MIC for the RN4220 and IS-58 strains, suggesting that the substances presented an inhibitory effect on the efflux pumps of these strains. Significant efforts have been done to identify efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) from natural sources and, therefore, the antibacterial properties of cholecalciferol and alphatocopherol might be attributed to a direct effect on the bacterial cell depending on their amphipathic structure. © 2016, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors. All rights reserve. Source

Tintino S.R.,Laboratory of Microbiology and Molecular Biology LMBM | Oliveira-Tintino C.D.M.,Laboratory of Microbiology and Molecular Biology LMBM | Campina F.F.,Laboratory of Microbiology and Molecular Biology LMBM | Silva R.L.P.,Laboratory of Microbiology and Molecular Biology LMBM | And 7 more authors.
Microbial Pathogenesis | Year: 2016

During the early periods of antibiotic usage, bacterial infections were considered tamed. However, widespread antibiotic use has promoted the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, including multidrug resistant strains. Active efflux is a mechanism for bacterial resistance to inhibitory substances, known simply as drug efflux pumps. The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogenic bacterium responsible for an array of infections. The NorA efflux pump has been shown to be responsible for moderate fluoroquinolone resistance of S. aureus. The inhibition of the efflux pump was assayed using a sub-inhibitory concentration of standard efflux pump inhibitors and tannic acid (MIC/8), where its capacity to decrease the MIC of Ethidium bromide (EtBr) and antibiotics due to the possible inhibitory effect of these substances was observed. The MICs of EtBr and antibiotics were significantly reduced in the presence of tannic acid, indicating the inhibitory effect of this agent against the efflux pumps of both strains causing a three-fold reduction of the MIC when compared with the control. These results indicate the possible usage of tannic acid as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy against multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR). © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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