Donati G.,Laboratory of Cancer Metabolism |
Donati G.,University of Cincinnati |
Peddigari S.,University of Cincinnati |
Mercer C.A.,University of Cincinnati |
And 2 more authors.
Cell Reports | Year: 2013
Recently, we demonstrated that RPL5 and RPL11 act in a mutually dependent manner to inhibit Hdm2 and stabilize p53 following impaired ribosome biogenesis. Given that RPL5 and RPL11 form a preribosomal complex with noncoding 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and the three have been implicated in the p53 response, we reasoned they may be part of an Hdm2-inhibitory complex. Here, we show that small interfering RNAs directed against 5S rRNA have no effect on total or nascent levels of the noncoding rRNA, though they prevent the reported Hdm4 inhibition of p53. To achieve efficient inhibition of 5S rRNA synthesis, we targeted TFIIIA, a specific RNA polymerase III cofactor, which, like depletion of either RPL5 or RPL11, did not induce p53. Instead, 5S rRNA acts in a dependent manner with RPL5 and RPL11 to inhibit Hdm2 and stabilize p53. Moreover, depletion of any one of the three components abolished the binding of the other two to Hdm2, explaining their common dependence. Finally, we demonstrate that the RPL5/RPL11/5S rRNA preribosomal complex is redirected from assembly into nascent 60S ribosomes to Hdm2 inhibition as a consequence of impaired ribosome biogenesis. Thus, the activation of the Hdm2-inhibitory complex is not a passive but a regulated event, whose potential role in tumor suppression has been recently noted. © 2013 The Authors. Source
Meo-Evoli N.,University of Barcelona |
Meo-Evoli N.,Laboratory of Cancer Metabolism |
Almacellas E.,University of Barcelona |
Almacellas E.,Laboratory of Cancer Metabolism |
And 12 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2015
In addition to being a master regulator of cell cycle progression, E2F1 regulates other associated biological processes, including growth and malignancy. Here, we uncover a regulatory network linking E2F1 to lysosomal trafficking and mTORC1 signaling that involves v-ATPase regulation. By immunofluorescence and time-lapse microscopy we found that E2F1 induces the movement of lysosomes to the cell periphery, and that this process is essential for E2F1-induced mTORC1 activation and repression of autophagy. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments reveal that E2F1 regulates v-ATPase activity and inhibition of v-ATPase activity repressed E2F1-induced lysosomal trafficking and mTORC1 activation. Immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that E2F1 induces the recruitment of v-ATPase to lysosomal RagB GTPase, suggesting that E2F1 regulates v-ATPase activity by enhancing the association of V0 and V1 v-ATPase complex. Analysis of v-ATPase subunit expression identified B subunit of V0 complex, ATP6V0B, as a transcriptional target of E2F1. Importantly, ATP6V0B ectopic-expression increased v-ATPase and mTORC1 activity, consistent with ATP6V0B being responsible for mediating the effects of E2F1 on both responses. Our findings on lysosomal trafficking, mTORC1 activation and autophagy suppression suggest that pharmacological intervention at the level of v-ATPase may be an efficacious avenue for the treatment of metastatic processes in tumors overexpressing E2F1. Source
Cortes C.,University of Barcelona |
Cortes C.,Laboratory of Cancer Metabolism |
Kozma S.C.,Laboratory of Cancer Metabolism |
Tauler A.,University of Barcelona |
And 2 more authors.
Cellular Oncology | Year: 2015
Background: In the past, the HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) has been shown to induce apoptosis in several human tumor types, including neuroblastomas. Amplification and over-expression of the MYCN oncogene is a diagnostic hallmark and a poor prognostic indicator in high-risk neuroblastomas. Here, we studied the relationship between MYCN amplification and over-expression and the anti-tumor effect of SAHA to assess whether this drug may serve as a treatment option for high-risk neuroblastomas. Methods: Different human neuroblastoma cell lines, over-expressing or not over-expressing MYCN, were used in this study. Targeted knockdown and exogenous over-expression of MYCN were employed to examine correlations between MYCN expression levels and SAHA responses. After various time periods and concentration exposures to the drug, cell viability was measured by MTS assay, and variations in MYCN mRNA and protein levels were assessed by qPCR and Western blotting, respectively. Results: We found that SAHA decreased cell viability in all cell lines tested through apoptosis induction, and that SAHA had a stronger effect on cell lines carrying an amplified MYCN gene. A decrease in MYCN mRNA and protein levels was observed in the SAHA treated cell lines. Subsequent silencing and exogenous over-expression of MYCN changed the proliferation rate of the cells, but did not have any significant impact on the effect of SAHA on the viability of the cells. We also found that SAHA blocked the expression of MYCN and, by doing so, reduced the effects mediated by this protein. Conclusions: Our results suggest that SAHA may be used as a single-drug treatment option for neuroblastomas with an amplified MYCN gene, and as an adjuvant treatment option for all neuroblastomas. © 2015, International Society for Cellular Oncology. Source
Cortes C.L.,University of Barcelona |
Cortes C.L.,Laboratory of Cancer Metabolism |
Veiga S.R.,Laboratory of Cancer Metabolism |
Almacellas E.,University of Barcelona |
And 11 more authors.
Molecular Cancer | Year: 2016
Background: Neuroblastoma is a malignant embryonal tumor occurring in young children, consisting of undifferentiated neuroectodermal cells derived from the neural crest. Current therapies for high-risk neuroblastoma are insufficient, resulting in high mortality rates and high incidence of relapse. With the intent to find new therapies for neuroblastomas, we investigated the efficacy of low-doses of actinomycin D, which at low concentrations preferentially inhibit RNA polymerase I-dependent rRNA trasncription and therefore, ribosome biogenesis. Methods: Neuroblastoma cell lines with different p53 genetic background were employed to determine the response on cell viability and apoptosis of low-dose of actinomycin D. Subcutaneously-implanted SK-N-JD derived neuroblastoma tumors were used to assess the effect of low-doses of actinomycin D on tumor formation. Results: Low-dose actinomycin D treatment causes a reduction of cell viability in neuroblastoma cell lines and that this effect is stronger in cells that are wild-type for p53. MYCN overexpression contributes to enhance this effect, confirming the importance of this oncogene in ribosome biogenesis. In the wild-type SK-N-JD cell line, apoptosis was the major mechanism responsible for the reduction in viability and we demonstrate that treatment with the MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3, had a similar effect to that of actinomycin D. Apoptosis was also detected in p53-/-deficient LA1-55n cells treated with actinomycin D, however, only a small recovery of cell viability was found when apoptosis was inhibited by a pan-caspase inhibitor, suggesting that the treatment could activate an apoptosis-independent cell death pathway in these cells. We also determined whether actinomycin D could increase the efficacy of the histone deacetylase inhibitor, SAHA, which is in being used in neuroblastoma clinical trials. We show that actinomycin D synergizes with SAHA in neuroblastoma cell lines. Moreover, on subcutaneously-implanted neuroblastoma tumors derived from SK-N-JD cells, actinomycin D led to tumor regression, an effect enhanced in combination with SAHA. Conclusions: The results presented in this work demonstrate that actinomycin D, at low concentrations, inhibits proliferation and induces cell death in vitro, as well as tumor regression in vivo. From this study, we propose that use of ribosome biogenesis inhibitors should be clinically considered as a potential therapy to treat neuroblastomas. © 2015 Cortes et al. Source