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Objective: In China, -SEA, -α3.7 and -α4.2 are common deletional α-thalassemia alleles. Gap-PCR is the currently used detection method for these alleles, whose disadvantages include time-consuming procedure and increased potential for PCR product contamination. Therefore, this detection method needs to be improved. Based on identical-primer homologous fragments, a qPCR system was developed for deletional α-thalassemia genotyping, which was composed of a group of quantitatively-related primers and their corresponding probes plus two groups of qualitatively-related primers and their corresponding probes. In order to verify the accuracy of the qPCR system, known genotype samples and random samples are employed. Result: The standard curve result demonstrated that designed primers and probes all yielded good amplification efficiency. In the tests of known genotype samples and random samples, sample detection results were consistent with verification results. Conclusions: In detecting αα, -SEA, -α3.7 and -α4.2 alleles, deletional α-thalassemia alleles are accurately detected by this method. In addition, this method is provided with a wider detection range, greater speed and reduced PCR product contamination risk when compared with current common gap-PCR detection reagents. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Sheth F.,Institute of Human Genetics | Andrieux J.,Laboratory of Medical Genetics | Sheth J.,Institute of Human Genetics
Indian Pediatrics | Year: 2010

A de novo supernumerary marker chromosome (SMC) was identified in a 13-month-old girl who presented with microcephaly and mild mental retardation. On further characterization by oligo-nucleotide array-comparative genomic hybridization [array-CGH], the SMC was confirmed to be 18p.

Kimberling W.J.,Genetics Center | Kimberling W.J.,University of Iowa | Kimberling W.J.,Boys Town Research Hospital | Borsa N.,Laboratory of Medical Genetics | Smith R.J.H.,University of Iowa
Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology | Year: 2011

There are several syndromes in which both hearing and renal function are impaired. The two best known are branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome and Alport syndrome. These are reviewed along with several other rarer syndromes. BOR is especially important since it is likely to be first recognized by the otolaryngologist because of the hearing and branchial anomalies. It is important for the practicing otolaryngologist to recognize these disorders and to ensure that renal problems are being treated. In addition, the syndromes discussed here are all hereditaryand referral to a clinical geneticist may be helpful to the individual and family. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Pillai-Kastoori L.,University of Kentucky | Wen W.,University of Kentucky | Wilson S.G.,University of Kentucky | Strachan E.,University of Alberta | And 6 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2014

Ocular coloboma is a sight-threatening malformation caused by failure of the choroid fissure to close during morphogenesis of the eye, and is frequently associated with additional anomalies, including microphthalmia and cataracts. Although Hedgehog signaling is known to play a critical role in choroid fissure closure, genetic regulation of this pathway remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the transcription factor Sox11 is required to maintain specific levels of Hedgehog signaling during ocular development. Sox11-deficient zebrafish embryos displayed delayed and abnormal lens formation, coloboma, and a specific reduction in rod photoreceptors, all of which could be rescued by treatment with the Hedgehog pathway inhibitor cyclopamine. We further demonstrate that the elevated Hedgehog signaling in Sox11-deficient zebrafish was caused by a large increase in shha transcription; indeed, suppressing Shha expression rescued the ocular phenotypes of sox11 morphants. Conversely, over-expression of sox11 induced cyclopia, a phenotype consistent with reduced levels of Sonic hedgehog. We screened DNA samples from 79 patients with microphthalmia, anophthalmia, or coloboma (MAC) and identified two novel heterozygous SOX11 variants in individuals with coloboma. In contrast to wild type human SOX11 mRNA, mRNA containing either variant failed to rescue the lens and coloboma phenotypes of Sox11-deficient zebrafish, and both exhibited significantly reduced transactivation ability in a luciferase reporter assay. Moreover, decreased gene dosage from a segmental deletion encompassing the SOX11 locus resulted in microphthalmia and related ocular phenotypes. Therefore, our study reveals a novel role for Sox11 in controlling Hedgehog signaling, and suggests that SOX11 variants contribute to pediatric eye disorders. © 2014 Pillai-Kastoori et al.

Henrichsen C.N.,University of Lausanne | Csardi G.,University of Lausanne | Csardi G.,Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics | Fusco C.,Laboratory of Medical Genetics | And 4 more authors.
PLoS Computational Biology | Year: 2011

The genetic dissection of the phenotypes associated with Williams-Beuren Syndrome (WBS) is advancing thanks to the study of individuals carrying typical or atypical structural rearrangements, as well as in vitro and animal studies. However, little is known about the global dysregulations caused by the WBS deletion. We profiled the transcriptomes of skin fibroblasts from WBS patients and compared them to matched controls. We identified 868 differentially expressed genesthat were significantly enriched in extracellular matrix genes, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, as well as genes in which the products localize to the postsynaptic membrane. We then used public expression datasets from human fibroblasts to establish transcription modules, sets of genes coexpressed in this cell type. We identified those sets in which the average gene expression was altered in WBS samples. Dysregulated modules are often interconnected and share multiple common genes, suggesting that intricate regulatory networks connected by a few central genes are disturbed in WBS. This modular approach increases the power to identify pathways dysregulated in WBS patients, thus providing a testable set of additional candidates for genes and their interactions that modulate the WBS phenotypes. © 2011 Henrichsen et al.

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