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Etang J.,Laboratory of Medical Entomology | Etang J.,University of Douala | Nwane P.,University of Yaounde I | Piameu M.,Laboratory of Medical Entomology | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:From 2006 to 2011, biological activity of insecticides for Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS), conventional treatment of nets (CTNs) or long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) was evaluated before their approval in Cameroon. The objective of the study was to select the best tools for universal malaria vector control coverage.Methodology:Bioassays were performed using WHO cones and the Kisumu susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae s.s. Among tested products, residual activity and wash resistance of Alpha-cypermethrin LLINs (Interceptor) and CTNs (Fendona) were assessed during 5 months in the Ntougou neighborhood.Principal Findings:All the 14 tested products were found effective (95-100% knockdown and mortality rates), although a significant decrease of efficacy was seen with lambda-cyhalothrinWP IRS, alpha-cypermethrin CTNs and LLINs (p< 0.05). However, the efficacy of Interceptor nets did not decrease during the 5 months evaluation, even after 25 washes (0.07

Etang J.,Laboratory of Medical Entomology | Etang J.,University of Douala | Nwane P.,University of Yaounde I | Mbida J.,University of Douala | And 5 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2011

Background: Determination of residual activity of insecticides is essential information for the selection of appropriate indoor spraying operation. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the residual effect of three candidate insecticide formulations on different indoor surfaces in order to guide future interventions, in the context of Cameroon and other African countries. Methods. The study was conducted in the Ntougou neighbourhood in Yaoundé (capital city of Cameroon). Bendiocarb WP, lambda-cyhalothrin CS and deltamethrin WG were sprayed on the indoor wall surfaces of local cement, wood and mud houses. Their effects on the knockdown and mortality of the Kisumu susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae s.s were assessed each month from March to September 2009, using the WHO plastic cones test. Knockdown and mortality rates were compared between different surfaces using Chi-square test. A Kaplan-Meir model was used to estimate the time of treatment failure. Results: With bendiocarb WP, the knockdown rates were frequently above 98% during 13 weeks after spraying, except on mud walls where it significantly decreased at the 13th week (P < 0.05). With lambda cyhalothrin CS, the knockdown rates remained 100% on wood surfaces during the 26 weeks trial. However, it significantly decreased on concrete and mud surfaces from the 11th (83%) and the 20th (88%) weeks respectively (P < 0.05). With deltamethrin WG, it remained high on concrete surfaces during 26 weeks (> 98%); while it varied between 60 and 100% on wood or mud surfaces. The survival estimates of bendiocarb WP treatments remaining effective in killing An. gambiae s.s. (mortality rate 80%) was > 13 weeks on cement and wood surfaces and 13 weeks on mud surfaces. Those of lambda-cyhalothrin CS were > 26 weeks on wood surfaces, and 20 weeks on concrete and mud surfaces. By contrast, those of deltamethrin WG were 26 weeks on concrete, 20 weeks on mud surfaces and 15 weeks on wood surfaces. Conclusion: Current data suggest variable durations of spray cycles for each product, according to the type of wall surfaces, highlighting the importance of testing candidate products in local context before using them in large scale. © 2011 Etang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Pennetier C.,Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement Ird | Bouraima A.,Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement Ird | Chandre F.,IRD Montpellier | Piameu M.,Laboratory of Medical Entomology | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Due to the rapid extension of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors worldwide, manufacturers are developing new vector control tools including insecticide mixtures containing at least two active ingredients with different mode of action as part of insecticide resistance management. Olyset® Plus is a new long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) incorporating permethrin and a synergist, piperonyl butoxide (PBO), into its fibres in order to counteract metabolic-based pyrethroid resistance of mosquitoes. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of Olyset® Plus both in laboratory and field against susceptible and multi-resistant malaria vectors and compared with Olyset Net, which is a permethrin incorporated into polyethylene net. In laboratory, Olyset® Plus performed better than Olyset® Net against susceptible Anopheles gambiae strain with a 2-day regeneration time owing to an improved permethrin bleeding rate with the new incorporation technology. It also performed better than Olyset® Net against multiple resistant populations of An. gambiae in experimental hut trials in West Africa. Moreover, the present study showed evidence for a benefit of incorporating a synergist, PBO, with a pyrethroid insecticide into mosquito netting. These results need to be further validated in a large-scale field trial to assess the durability and acceptability of this new tool for malaria vector control. © 2013 Pennetier et al.

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