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Willemsen H.,Laboratory of Livestock Physiology | Debonne M.,Laboratory of Livestock Physiology | Swennen Q.,Hasselt University | Everaert N.,Laboratory of Livestock Physiology | And 5 more authors.
World's Poultry Science Journal | Year: 2010

In a commercial hatchery, chicks (or poults) hatch over a 24-48 hour period. All chicks remain in the incubator until the majority of the chicks have emerged from the shell. Once removed from the incubator, the newly hatched chick has to undergo several hatchery treatments and is then transported before being placed on the broiler farm. This means that, under practical conditions, chicks are deprived of feed and water for up to 72 hours. In addition, the time of hatch within the hatching window and the spread of hatch cause variability in the amount of time that chicks are feed deprived. Literature on feed deprivation after hatch clearly demonstrates the detrimental effects of any delay in feed access on performance of the chicks with respect to growth, immune system activation, digestive enzyme stimulation and organ development. Improved management strategies, such as shortening the hatching window or the time to first feeding by specific management measures, provide an alternative in dealing with the negative effects caused by a delay in feed access. The development of pre-starter diets that better meet the needs of the newly hatched chicks or in ovo feeding to bridge the gap between hatch and first feeding provide other alternatives in overcoming these problems. However, speculation remains regarding the importance of in ovo or early feeding, or whether the in ovo or early feeding itself is responsible for the beneficial effects reported. The aim of the following review is to discuss the current status of research into early feeding and to stimulate future and further research regarding these topics. © World's Poultry Science Association 2010.

Geraylou Z.,Catholic University of Leuven | Rurangwa E.,Catholic University of Leuven | Rurangwa E.,Wageningen University | De Wiele T.V.,Ghent University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Aquaculture Research and Development | Year: 2014

The in vitro fermentation of two Non-Digestible Oligosaccharide (NDO) preparations, Arabinoxylan- Oligosaccharides (AXOS) and Oligofructose (OF), and their respective monomeric sugars, xylose and fructose, were investigated by hindgut microbiota of two major aquaculture fish species, Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Inocula from the hindgut of both fish species were incubated for 48 h in bottles containing 1.0% of one of four substrates, i.e. AXOS, OF, xylose or fructose. Amounts and profiles of produced Short-Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs) differed between the two fish species and substrates. The hindgut microbiota of Siberian sturgeon has a higher fermentation capacity than the microbiota from African catfish. Xylose was much easier fermented than AXOS by microbiota from Siberian sturgeon whereas OF was quicker fermented than fructose with African catfish inoculum. The SCFAs were dominated by acetic acid for both fish species and for all substrates. Fermentation of OF and fructose by hindgut microbiota of Siberian sturgeon also yielded high amounts of butyric and branched-chain fatty acids after 48 h incubation. Results of this study suggest that AXOS, OF, and their monomeric sugars have an impact on microbial fermentation activity of hindgut microbiota from Siberian sturgeon and African catfish in a substrate and species dependent manner. © 2014 Geraylou Z, et al.

PubMed | Laboratory of Livestock Physiology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Poultry science | Year: 2013

To examine the importance of albumen as a protein source during embryonic development on the posthatch performance of laying hens, 3 mL of the albumen was removed. At hatch, no difference in BW could be observed. Chicks from the albumen-deprived group had a lower residual yolk weight due to higher yolk utilization. During the rearing phase (hatch to 17 wk of age), the BW of the albumen-deprived pullets was lower compared with the control and sham pullets. The feed intake of the albumen-deprived pullets was also lower than the control pullets. However, during the laying phase (18 to 55 wk of age) these hens exceeded the control and sham hens in BW, although this was not accompanied by a higher feed intake. The albumen-deprived hens exhibited a lower egg production capacity as demonstrated by the reduced egg weight, laying rate, and egg mass and increased number of second grade eggs. In addition, the eggs laid by the albumen-deprived hens had a higher proportional yolk and lower proportional albumen weight. In conclusion, prenatal protein deprivation by albumen removal caused a long-lasting programming effect, possibly by differences in energy allocation, in favor of growth and maintenance and impairing reproductive performance.

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