Hamilton, MT, United States
Hamilton, MT, United States

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Howe D.,Rocky Mountain Laboratories | Shannon J.G.,Rocky Mountain Laboratories | Winfree S.,Laboratory of Intracellular Parasites | Dorward D.W.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Heinzen R.A.,Rocky Mountain Laboratories
Infection and Immunity | Year: 2010

Coxiella burnetii infects mononuclear phagocytes, where it directs biogenesis of a vacuolar niche termed the parasitophorous vacuole (PV). Owing to its lumenal pH (∼5) and fusion with endolysosomal vesicles, the PV is considered phagolysosome-like. However, the degradative properties of the mature PV are unknown, and there are conflicting reports on the maturation state and growth permissiveness of PV harboring virulent phase I or avirulent phase II C. burnetii variants in human mononuclear phagocytes. Here, we employed infection of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs) and THP-1 cells as host cells to directly compare the PV maturation kinetics and pathogen growth in cells infected with the Nine Mile phase I variant (NMI) or phase II variant (NMII) of C. burnetii. In both cell types, phase variants replicated with similar kinetics, achieving roughly 2 to 3 log units of growth before they reached stationary phase. HMDMs infected by either phase variant secreted similar amounts of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha. In infected THP-1 cells, equal percentages of NMI and NMII PVs decorate with the early endosomal marker Rab5, the late endosomal/lysosomal markers Rab7 and CD63, and the lysosomal marker cathepsin D at early (8 h) and late (72 h) time points postinfection (p.i.). Mature PVs (2 to 4 days p.i.) harboring NMI or NMII contained proteolytically active cathepsins and quickly degraded Escherichia coli. These data suggest that C. burnetii does not actively inhibit phagolysosome function as a survival mechanism. Instead, NMI and NMII resist degradation to replicate in indistinguishable digestive PVs that fully mature through the endolysosomal pathway. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology.

Griffin A.J.,Laboratory of Intracellular Parasites | Crane D.D.,Laboratory of Intracellular Parasites | Wehrly T.D.,Laboratory of Intracellular Parasites | Scott D.P.,Rocky Mountain Laboratories | Bosio C.M.,Laboratory of Intracellular Parasites
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Virulent Francisella tularensis ssp tularensis is an intracellular, Gram negative bacterium that causes acute lethal disease following inhalation of fewer than 15 organisms. Pathogenicity of Francisella infections is tied to its unique ability to evade and suppress inflammatory responses in host cells. It has been proposed that induction of alternative activation of infected macrophages is a mechanism by which attenuated Francisella species modulate host responses. In this report we reveal that neither attenuated F. tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS) nor virulent F. tularensis strain SchuS4 induce alternative activation of macrophages in vitro or in vivo. LVS, but not SchuS4, provoked production of arginase1 independent of alternative activation in vitro and in vivo. However, absence of arginase1 did not significantly impact intracellular replication of LVS or SchuS4. Together our data establish that neither induction of alternative activation nor expression of arginase1 are critical features of disease mediated by attenuated or virulent Francisella species.

Larson C.L.,Washington State University | Larson C.L.,Laboratory of Intracellular Parasites | Samuelson D.R.,Washington State University | Eucker T.P.,Washington State University | And 2 more authors.
Emerging Microbes and Infections | Year: 2013

Campylobacter jejuni is a gram-negative, curved and rod-shaped bacterium that causes human gastroenteritis. Acute disease is associated with C. jejuni invasion of the intestinal epithelium. Epithelial cells infected with C. jejuni strains containing mutations in the FlpA and CadF fibronectin (Fn)-binding proteins exhibit reduced invasion of host cells and a C. jejuni CadF FlpA double mutant is impaired in the activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Rho GTPase Rac1. Although these observations establish a role for Fn-binding proteins during C. jejuni invasion, their mechanistic contributions to invasion-associated signaling are unclear. We examined FlpA, a C. jejuni Fn-binding protein composed of three FNIII-like repeats D1, D2 and D3, to identify the interactions required for cellular adherence on pathogen-induced host cell signaling. We report that FlpA binds the Fn gelatin-binding domain via a motif within the D2 repeat. Epithelial cells infected with a flpA mutant exhibited decreased Rac1 activation and reduced membrane ruffling that coincided with impaired delivery of the secreted Cia proteins and reduced cell association. Phosphorylation of the Erk1/2 kinase, a downstream effector of EGFR signaling, was specifically associated with FlpA-mediated activation of β 1-integrin and EGFR signaling. In vivo experiments revealed that FlpA is necessary for C. jejuni disease based on bacterial dissemination to the spleen of IL-10-/-germ-free mice. Thus, a novel Fn-binding motif within FlpA potentiates activation of Erk1/2 signaling via β 1-integrin during C. jejuni infection. © 2013 SSCC.

Olivares-Zavaleta N.,Laboratory of Intracellular Parasites | Whitmire W.,Laboratory of Intracellular Parasites | Gardner D.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Caldwell H.D.,Laboratory of Intracellular Parasites
Vaccine | Year: 2010

Here we report on the safety, immunogenicity, and vaccine efficacy of the naturally occurring plasmid-free attenuated Chlamydia trachomatis L2-25667R (L2R) strain in a murine infection model. Intravaginal immunization induced both chlamydial specific serum antibody and systemic CD4+ Th1 biased immune responses but failed to induce local IgA antibodies. Immunization induced no pathological changes in the urogenital tract. Protective immunity was evaluated by vaginal challenge with a natural occurring non-attenuated plasmid positive C. trachomatis urogenital strain (serovar D). Vaccinated mice were not protected from colonization/infection but exhibited a reduction in infectious burden at early time periods (1-2 weeks) post-challenge. Partial protective immunity did not protect against inflammatory disease. Thus, intravaginal vaccination with the live-attenuated L2R stain is safe, induces a systemic antibody and CD4+ Th1 biased immune response, but its protective efficacy is limited to reducing chlamydial burden at early time periods post-infection.

Chase J.C.,Laboratory of Intracellular Parasites | Bosio C.M.,Laboratory of Intracellular Parasites
Infection and Immunity | Year: 2010

Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes acute, lethal disease following inhalation. We have previously shown that viable F. tularensis fails to stimulate secretion of proinflammatory cytokines following infection of human dendritic cells (hDC) in vitro and pulmonary cells in vivo. Here we demonstrate that the presence of the CD14 receptor is critical for detection of virulent F. tularensis strain SchuS4 by dendritic cells, monocytes, and pulmonary cells. Addition of soluble CD14 (sCD14) to hDC restored cytokine production following infection with strain SchuS4. In contrast, addition of anti-CD14 to monocyte cultures inhibited the ability of these cells to respond to strain SchuS4. Addition of CD14 or blocking CD14 following SchuS4 infection in dendritic cells and monocytes, respectively, was not due to alterations in phagocytosis or replication of the bacterium in these cells. Administration of sCD14 in vivo also restored cytokine production following infection with strain SchuS4, as assessed by increased concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-12p70, and IL-6 in the lungs of mice receiving sCD14 compared to mock-treated controls. In contrast to homogenous cultures of monocytes or dendritic cells infected in vitro, mice treated with sCD14 in vivo also exhibited controlled bacterial replication and dissemination compared to mock-treated controls. Interestingly, animals that lacked CD14 were not more susceptible or resistant to pulmonary infection with SchuS4. Together, these data support the hypothesis that the absence or low abundance of CD14 on hDC and in the lung contributes to evasion of innate immunity by virulent F. tularensis. However, CD14 is not required for development of inflammation during the last 24 to 48 h of SchuS4 infection. Thus, the presence of this receptor may aid in control of virulent F. tularensis infections at early, but not late, stages of infection.

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