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Sdiri-Loulizi K.,Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents | Sdiri-Loulizi K.,University Hospital of Dijon | Hassine M.,Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents | Bour J.-B.,University Hospital of Dijon | And 10 more authors.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2010

Aichi virus has been described as a novel causative agent of gastroenteritis in humans. In this study, we report the seroprevalence distribution of Aichi virus in Tunisia. A panel of 1,000 sera was screened by applying an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin G specific for Aichi virus. A considerable prevalence (92%) of antibody to Aichi virus was found across all age groups. The specific anti-Aichi virus antibodies increased with age, from a high rate (68.8%) in children under 10 years old to about 100% in persons more than 60 years old. We found a statistically significant increase in levels of antibody to Aichi virus according to the age of patients. Immunoglobulin M antibodies were detected among five children. A high frequency of Aichi virus monoinfections in hospitalized children with severe gastroenteritis was previously observed in Tunisia. Aichi virus causes diarrhea with dehydration, fever, and vomiting. This work is the first to establish a correlation between the high seroprevalence of specific Aichi virus antibodies, clinical presentation, and a high frequency of isolation of Aichi virus by genomic characterization in stools of children suffering from gastroenteritis. Our data show the importance and emerging character of Aichi virus in the viral etiology of pediatric gastroenteritis. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Sdiri-Loulizi K.,Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents | Sdiri-Loulizi K.,University Hospital of Dijon | Hassine M.,Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents | Aouni Z.,Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2010

Aims: A prospective study was performed to characterize the main human enteric viruses able to persist in sewage samples and in shellfish tissues, and to establish the correlation between environmental strains and viral infantile diarrhoea observed in the same area during the same period. Methods and Results: A total of 250 sewage (raw and treated) and 60 shellfish samples were collected between January 2003 and April 2007 in Monastir region, Tunisia. Group A rotavirus (RVA) was detected in 80 (32%) sewage samples, norovirus (NoV) in 11 (4·4%) and enteric adenovirus (AdV) in 1 (0·4%). Among 60 shellfish samples collected near sewage effluents, one was contaminated by NoV (1·6%). Conclusion: Our data represent the first documentation in Tunisia, combining gastroenteritis viruses circulating in the environment and in clinical isolates. We observed a correlation between environmental strains and those found in children suffering from gastroenteritis during the same period study. This suggests the existence of a relationship between water contamination and paediatric diarrhoea. Significance and Impact of the Study: Our results address the potential health risks associated with transmission of human enteric viruses through water-related environmental routes. The research findings will aid in elucidating the molecular epidemiology and circulation of enteric viruses in Tunisia and in Africa, where data are rare. © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.


Sdiri-Loulizi K.,Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents | Sdiri-Loulizi K.,University Hospital of Dijon | Hassine M.,Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents | Aouni Z.,Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents | And 7 more authors.
Archives of Virology | Year: 2010

The aims of our investigations were (1) to look for Aichi virus in environmental samples and (2) to compare the Aichi virus strains in both clinical and environmental samples in order to evaluate the role of environmental contamination as a possible vehicle for viral transmission. Aichi virus was detected in 15 (6%) sewage samples and in 4 (6.6%) shellfish samples. Aichi virus was identified for the first time in water samples. Phylogenetic analysis revealed several clusters that occurred sequentially in time, suggesting some parallelism in the evolution of environmental and human strains. Aichi virus present in sewage reflects the viruses circulating in the community. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Sdiri-Loulizi K.,Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents | Sdiri-Loulizi K.,University Hospital of Dijon | Hassine M.,Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents | Gharbi-Khelifi H.,Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents | And 7 more authors.
Virus Genes | Year: 2011

This study investigated the prevalence of sapovirus infections in children with acute gastroenteritis in Monastir region, Tunisia, from January 2003 to April 2007. Sapovirus was characterized by sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the partial polymerase gene. From 788 fecal specimens tested, 6 (0.8%) were positive for sapovirus, of these, 4 (66.7%) were monoinfections. All sapovirus positive samples were detected in outpatient, contrary to norovirus which was significantly more frequent in hospitalized children than in outpatients (14.5 vs. 9.5%, P = 0.03). The mean age of children with sapovirus infections was 11 ± 5.56 months (range 6-19 months). Sapovirus isolates were detected in March and between September and December 2003. Fever, vomiting, abdominal pain, and dehydration were not observed in patients with sapovirus infections. Analysis of nucleotide and amino acid sequences revealed that all 6 Tunisian sapovirus strains clustered in the GGI/1 genotype and strains were identical in the region sequenced, sharing 90.2% nucleotide identity with the reference strain Sapporo/82/JP (U65427). This represents the first finding of sapovirus infections in North Africa and especially in Tunisia. The data indicate that, contrary to norovirus which can cause severe diarrhea and is an important etiologic agent in hospitalized cases, sapovirus causes mild gastroenteritis in Tunisian children. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Sdiri-Loulizi K.,Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents | Sdiri-Loulizi K.,University Hospital of Dijon | Ambert-Balay K.,University Hospital of Dijon | Gharbi-Khelifi H.,Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents | And 6 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2011

Rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe viral gastroenteritis in early childhood worldwide. Thus, the objectives of our study were to determine the molecular epidemiology and the clinical features of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Tunisia. Between January 2003 and April 2007, a prospective study was conducted on 788 stool samples collected from children under 12 years of age who were suffering from acute gastroenteritis. Rotavirus was detected by multiplex RT-PCR in 27% (n = 213) of samples, among them 79.3% (n = 169) cases were monoinfections. The frequency of rotavirus infections was significantly higher among inpatients (29%) than among outpatients (13%) (P < 0.001). The seasonal distribution of rotavirus diarrhea showed a winter peak, with an unusual peak from June to September. The mean duration of hospitalization was 6.5 ± 8.1 days and the mean age was 15.8 ± 22.8 months for rotavirus monoinfections. Fever, vomiting, abdominal pain, and dehydration were observed in 88, 98, 13, and 80 cases, respectively, in children with rotavirus monoinfections. G3P[8] (45.6%) and G1P[8] (23.9%) were the most common genotypes found in our study. The determination of rotavirus infection prevalence and the characterization of the rotavirus strains circulating will help us to better understand the molecular biology and epidemiology of the disease in our country.


Ayouni S.,Public Hospital of Dijon | Ayouni S.,Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents | Estienney M.,Public Hospital of Dijon | Sdiri-Loulizi K.,Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents | And 8 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2015

Noroviruses (NoVs) constitute a major cause of gastroenteritis in Tunisia. One hundred and fourteen matched saliva and stool samples were collected from children (. n=114) suffering from acute gastroenteritis at the hospital of Monastir during the winter season 2011-2012. For 98 of 114 children, blood samples were collected for secretor genotyping. NoVs were associated with 36.8% (. n=42/114) of the gastroenteritis cases. The GII.3 genotype was the most common (69% of all NoVs). For patients who were phenotyped (. n=114) for human blood group antigens (HBGAs), the secretor and non-secretor phenotypes represented 79% and 21%, respectively. Of the NoV infections, 83% were detected in all ABO groups. Five GII.3 isolates, one GII.1 isolate and one GII.7 isolate were detected in Lewis-positive non-secretors, confirmed by genotyping of the FUT2 gene. Even though our data showed that GII.3 NoVs could infect non-secretors, no binding was observed with saliva and GII.3 baculovirus-expressed virus-like particles from the same symptomatic non-secretor individual. This suggests that other factors might also participate in NoV attachment in children and newborns. © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.


PubMed | Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents, University of Monastir and Public Hospital of Dijon
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Noroviruses (NoVs) constitute a major cause of gastroenteritis in Tunisia. One hundred and fourteen matched saliva and stool samples were collected from children (n = 114) suffering from acute gastroenteritis at the hospital of Monastir during the winter season 2011-2012. For 98 of 114 children, blood samples were collected for secretor genotyping. NoVs were associated with 36.8% (n = 42/114) of the gastroenteritis cases. The GII.3 genotype was the most common (69% of all NoVs). For patients who were phenotyped (n = 114) for human blood group antigens (HBGAs), the secretor and non-secretor phenotypes represented 79% and 21%, respectively. Of the NoV infections, 83% were detected in all ABO groups. Five GII.3 isolates, one GII.1 isolate and one GII.7 isolate were detected in Lewis-positive non-secretors, confirmed by genotyping of the FUT2 gene. Even though our data showed that GII.3 NoVs could infect non-secretors, no binding was observed with saliva and GII.3 baculovirus-expressed virus-like particles from the same symptomatic non-secretor individual. This suggests that other factors might also participate in NoV attachment in children and newborns.


Ben Salem I.,Laboratory of Hygiene | Ben Salem I.,Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents | Aouni M.,Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents | Mzoughi R.,Laboratory of Hygiene | Mzoughi R.,Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents
Annals of Microbiology | Year: 2010

In Tunisia, Salmonella is the most common bacterial agent responsible for childhood diarrhoea. Currently, isolation of the bacterium by microbiological and biochemical methods and confirmation of the serotype by serological method remain as the "gold standard". This study aimed to differentiate among the most common serotypes of Salmonella spp. via two rapid five-plex PCRs assay (MPCR) to evaluate the molecular serotyping method compared with the gold standard serotyping technique. The two five-plex PCRs assays were designed for the simultaneous detection of six genetic loci from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and four from S. enterica serovar Typhi. Sixty-one Tunisian strains (46 collected from patients and 15 from food) were isolated during the period 2002-2007. The STM and STY primers were able to discriminate all tested Salmonella serotypes that represent the most common clinical and food strains of S. enterica subsp. enterica in our laboratory. All strains belonged to 19 different serotypes: 15 serotypes gave unique amplification patterns compared each other and the other 4 serotypes were grouped into two pairs that gave the same molecular profile. We resolved this problem through the addition of a monoplex PCR. Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 consistently produced the same molecular profile as S. typhimurium laboratory isolates. Interestingly, seven strains of Anatum serovar produced two different PCR profiles with these primers: five strains had the same amplification pattern STM 2,4,5 and STY 2; however, two strains had another molecular profile STM 2,3,5 and STY 2; so the reproducibility of this method was reduced to 93%. The MPCR system is a rapid, specific, and cost-effective molecular method that gas been proved to have efficient discrimination in serotyping of the most common isolates of S. enterica subsp. enterica. © 2010 Springer-Verlag and the University of Milan.


PubMed | Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the leading agents of acute hepatitis. This study investigated the prevalence and risk factors of HEV infection in the Tunisian adult general population, either in blood donors (n=687) or in patients hospitalized for acute hepatitis (n=202). The mode of transmission differed between these two populations: contact with animals and living in a rural habitat were the main risk factors for being in contact with HEV in asymptomatic blood donors, while HEV was contracted through contaminated water in symptomatic cases. HEV seroprevalence in adult blood donors in Tunisia was relatively low (5.4%) and increased with age.


PubMed | Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Canadian journal of microbiology | Year: 2011

Rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe viral gastroenteritis in early childhood worldwide. Thus, the objectives of our study were to determine the molecular epidemiology and the clinical features of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Tunisia. Between January 2003 and April 2007, a prospective study was conducted on 788 stool samples collected from children under 12 years of age who were suffering from acute gastroenteritis. Rotavirus was detected by multiplex RT-PCR in 27% (n = 213) of samples, among them 79.3% (n = 169) cases were monoinfections. The frequency of rotavirus infections was significantly higher among inpatients (29%) than among outpatients (13%) (P < 0.001). The seasonal distribution of rotavirus diarrhea showed a winter peak, with an unusual peak from June to September. The mean duration of hospitalization was 6.5 8.1 days and the mean age was 15.8 22.8 months for rotavirus monoinfections. Fever, vomiting, abdominal pain, and dehydration were observed in 88, 98, 13, and 80 cases, respectively, in children with rotavirus monoinfections. G3P[8] (45.6%) and G1P[8] (23.9%) were the most common genotypes found in our study. The determination of rotavirus infection prevalence and the characterization of the rotavirus strains circulating will help us to better understand the molecular biology and epidemiology of the disease in our country.

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