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Houcine N.,Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents | Houcine N.,Laboratoire Of Virologie Nord | Jacques R.,Laboratoire Of Virologie Nord | Jacques R.,University of Lyon | And 16 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2012

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the leading agents of acute hepatitis. This study investigated the prevalence and risk factors of HEV infection in the Tunisian adult general population, either in blood donors (n=687) or in patients hospitalized for acute hepatitis (n=202). The mode of transmission differed between these two populations: contact with animals and living in a rural habitat were the main risk factors for being in contact with HEV in asymptomatic blood donors, while HEV was contracted through contaminated water in symptomatic cases. HEV seroprevalence in adult blood donors in Tunisia was relatively low (5.4%) and increased with age. © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Source


Ayouni S.,National Reference Center for Enteric Viruses | Ayouni S.,Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents | Estienney M.,National Reference Center for Enteric Viruses | Sdiri-Loulizi K.,Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents | And 8 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2015

Noroviruses (NoVs) constitute a major cause of gastroenteritis in Tunisia. One hundred and fourteen matched saliva and stool samples were collected from children (. n=114) suffering from acute gastroenteritis at the hospital of Monastir during the winter season 2011-2012. For 98 of 114 children, blood samples were collected for secretor genotyping. NoVs were associated with 36.8% (. n=42/114) of the gastroenteritis cases. The GII.3 genotype was the most common (69% of all NoVs). For patients who were phenotyped (. n=114) for human blood group antigens (HBGAs), the secretor and non-secretor phenotypes represented 79% and 21%, respectively. Of the NoV infections, 83% were detected in all ABO groups. Five GII.3 isolates, one GII.1 isolate and one GII.7 isolate were detected in Lewis-positive non-secretors, confirmed by genotyping of the FUT2 gene. Even though our data showed that GII.3 NoVs could infect non-secretors, no binding was observed with saliva and GII.3 baculovirus-expressed virus-like particles from the same symptomatic non-secretor individual. This suggests that other factors might also participate in NoV attachment in children and newborns. © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Source


Ben Salem I.,Laboratory of Hygiene | Ben Salem I.,Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents | Aouni M.,Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents | Mzoughi R.,Laboratory of Hygiene | Mzoughi R.,Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents
Annals of Microbiology | Year: 2010

In Tunisia, Salmonella is the most common bacterial agent responsible for childhood diarrhoea. Currently, isolation of the bacterium by microbiological and biochemical methods and confirmation of the serotype by serological method remain as the "gold standard". This study aimed to differentiate among the most common serotypes of Salmonella spp. via two rapid five-plex PCRs assay (MPCR) to evaluate the molecular serotyping method compared with the gold standard serotyping technique. The two five-plex PCRs assays were designed for the simultaneous detection of six genetic loci from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and four from S. enterica serovar Typhi. Sixty-one Tunisian strains (46 collected from patients and 15 from food) were isolated during the period 2002-2007. The STM and STY primers were able to discriminate all tested Salmonella serotypes that represent the most common clinical and food strains of S. enterica subsp. enterica in our laboratory. All strains belonged to 19 different serotypes: 15 serotypes gave unique amplification patterns compared each other and the other 4 serotypes were grouped into two pairs that gave the same molecular profile. We resolved this problem through the addition of a monoplex PCR. Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 consistently produced the same molecular profile as S. typhimurium laboratory isolates. Interestingly, seven strains of Anatum serovar produced two different PCR profiles with these primers: five strains had the same amplification pattern STM 2,4,5 and STY 2; however, two strains had another molecular profile STM 2,3,5 and STY 2; so the reproducibility of this method was reduced to 93%. The MPCR system is a rapid, specific, and cost-effective molecular method that gas been proved to have efficient discrimination in serotyping of the most common isolates of S. enterica subsp. enterica. © 2010 Springer-Verlag and the University of Milan. Source


Sdiri-Loulizi K.,Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents | Sdiri-Loulizi K.,University Hospital of Dijon | Hassine M.,Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents | Gharbi-Khelifi H.,Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents | And 7 more authors.
Virus Genes | Year: 2011

This study investigated the prevalence of sapovirus infections in children with acute gastroenteritis in Monastir region, Tunisia, from January 2003 to April 2007. Sapovirus was characterized by sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the partial polymerase gene. From 788 fecal specimens tested, 6 (0.8%) were positive for sapovirus, of these, 4 (66.7%) were monoinfections. All sapovirus positive samples were detected in outpatient, contrary to norovirus which was significantly more frequent in hospitalized children than in outpatients (14.5 vs. 9.5%, P = 0.03). The mean age of children with sapovirus infections was 11 ± 5.56 months (range 6-19 months). Sapovirus isolates were detected in March and between September and December 2003. Fever, vomiting, abdominal pain, and dehydration were not observed in patients with sapovirus infections. Analysis of nucleotide and amino acid sequences revealed that all 6 Tunisian sapovirus strains clustered in the GGI/1 genotype and strains were identical in the region sequenced, sharing 90.2% nucleotide identity with the reference strain Sapporo/82/JP (U65427). This represents the first finding of sapovirus infections in North Africa and especially in Tunisia. The data indicate that, contrary to norovirus which can cause severe diarrhea and is an important etiologic agent in hospitalized cases, sapovirus causes mild gastroenteritis in Tunisian children. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Sdiri-Loulizi K.,Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents | Sdiri-Loulizi K.,University Hospital of Dijon | Ambert-Balay K.,University Hospital of Dijon | Gharbi-Khelifi H.,Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents | And 6 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2011

Rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe viral gastroenteritis in early childhood worldwide. Thus, the objectives of our study were to determine the molecular epidemiology and the clinical features of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Tunisia. Between January 2003 and April 2007, a prospective study was conducted on 788 stool samples collected from children under 12 years of age who were suffering from acute gastroenteritis. Rotavirus was detected by multiplex RT-PCR in 27% (n = 213) of samples, among them 79.3% (n = 169) cases were monoinfections. The frequency of rotavirus infections was significantly higher among inpatients (29%) than among outpatients (13%) (P < 0.001). The seasonal distribution of rotavirus diarrhea showed a winter peak, with an unusual peak from June to September. The mean duration of hospitalization was 6.5 ± 8.1 days and the mean age was 15.8 ± 22.8 months for rotavirus monoinfections. Fever, vomiting, abdominal pain, and dehydration were observed in 88, 98, 13, and 80 cases, respectively, in children with rotavirus monoinfections. G3P[8] (45.6%) and G1P[8] (23.9%) were the most common genotypes found in our study. The determination of rotavirus infection prevalence and the characterization of the rotavirus strains circulating will help us to better understand the molecular biology and epidemiology of the disease in our country. Source

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