Laboratory of Immunology and Immunotherapy

Baguer-Morvan, France

Laboratory of Immunology and Immunotherapy

Baguer-Morvan, France
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Alegria G.C.,CHRU Cavale Blanche | Alegria G.C.,University of Western Brittany | Alegria G.C.,Laboratory of Immunology and Immunotherapy | Devauchelle-Pensec V.,CHRU Cavale Blanche | And 8 more authors.
Rheumatology (United Kingdom) | Year: 2017

Objectives. The aim was to study lymphocyte subsets and circulating cytokines at diagnosis of PMR and after tocilizumab monotherapy. Methods. Eighteen untreated patients with PMR were included in a prospective study and received 3-monthly tocilizumab infusions without glucocorticoids. Lymphocyte subset distribution was assessed by flow cytometry and serum cytokines were assayed by a 34-cytokine array and ELISA, at baseline and during follow-up. Baseline data were also compared with age- and sex-matched controls. Results. At baseline, total lymphocytes, T-cell subsets and NK cell counts were similar in patients and controls, but patients had significantly lower B-cell counts attributable to lower transitional, naïve and post-switch memory B-cell subsets. Circulating B-cell counts were positively correlated with the PMR activity score (PMR-AS) in untreated active patients at baseline, but subsequently increased to normal values while disease activity was controlled after tocilizumab therapy. Among serum cytokines, IL-6 showed the largest concentration difference between patients and controls, and the serum IL-6 concentration was correlated with baseline PMR-AS. The effects of tocilizumab on serum IL-6 concentration were heterogeneous, and the patients whose serum IL-6 decreased after tocilizumab therapy exhibited a significant increase in circulating B-cell counts. Conclusion. In patients with PMR, B-cell lymphopenia and abnormal B-cell subset distribution are associated with disease activity and IL-6 concentration, and both are corrected by the IL-6 antagonist tocilizumab. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved.

Le Dantec C.,Brest University Medical School | Alonso R.,Brest University Medical School | Alonso R.,Center for Molecular Immunology | Fali T.,Brest University Medical School | And 7 more authors.
Immunologic Research | Year: 2013

CD6 is a cell surface receptor expressed on the majority of T cells and a subset of B cells. When expressed, CD6 contributes to lymphocyte activation through its extracellular domain 1, while adhesion and cellular migration are related to the extracellular scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain (SRCR-D)-3 of CD6. Itolizumab, clone T1h, is a newly developed humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that targets CD6 SRCR-D1 and blocks immune activation. Itolizumab has been proposed to be effective in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome and multiple sclerosis. In Sjögren's syndrome, the utilization of itolizumab as therapeutic option is reinforced by our recent observation that ALCAM, the CD6 ligand, is overexpressed and that CD6-positive T and B cells are detected within salivary glands from Sjögren's syndrome patients. In this study, itolizumab-positive target cells were characterized within both peripheral blood and salivary glands in order to provide rational for anti-CD6 treatment in Sjögren's syndrome. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Hemon P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Renaudineau Y.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Renaudineau Y.,Laboratory of Immunology and Immunotherapy | Debant M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 5 more authors.
Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology | Year: 2017

Maintenance of self-tolerance of auto-reactive lymphocytes is a fundamental mechanism to prevent the onset of autoimmune diseases. Deciphering the mechanisms involved in the deregulations leading to tolerance disruption and autoimmunity is still a major area of interest to identify new therapeutic targets and options. Ca2+ signaling plays a major role in B cell normal development and is therefore finely tuned by B cell receptor (BCR)-dependent and independent pathways. Developmental changes in the characteristics of BCR-dependent Ca2+ signals as well as the modulation of basal intracellular concentration ([Ca2+]i) contribute strongly to self-tolerance maintaining mechanisms responsible for the physical or functional elimination of autoreactive B cells such as clonal deletion, receptor editing, and anergy. Implication of Ca2+ signals in B tolerance mechanisms mainly occurs through the specific activation of transcriptional programs depending on the amplitude, shape, and duration of Ca2+ signals. A large number of studies reported Ca2+ signaling defects in autoimmune pathology such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and primary Sjӧgren’s syndrome (pSS). However, the precise nature of the molecular events responsible for these deregulations is not fully understood. Moreover, the demonstration of a direct correlation between Ca2+ signaling defects and tolerance disruption is still lacking. The recent identification of proteins involved in B cell Ca2+ signals such as ORAI, stromal interaction molecule and transient receptor potential is opening new horizons for understanding Ca2+ signaling defects observed in autoimmune diseases and for proposing potentially new therapeutic solutions. This review aims to present an overview of the developmental evolution of BCR dependent Ca2+ signaling and to place this signaling pathway in the context of mechanisms involved in tolerance maintenance and breakdown. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Tempescul A.,Institute of Oncology and Haematology | Tempescul A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Bagacean C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Riou C.,Institute of Oncology and Haematology | And 11 more authors.
European Journal of Haematology | Year: 2016

The management of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) has improved with the utilisation of ofatumumab as a novel anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody. However, as half of the patients fail to respond to the treatment, the aim of this study was to evaluate circulating CLL cell depletion and clinical response according to the context of complement activation and FcγRIIIA polymorphism in ten CLL patients with relapsed/refractory disease. At the end of the treatment, results indicated that circulating CD5+ CD19+ CLL cell depletion was major (<0.01 × 109/L) in 4 of 10 patients, partial (>50% decrease) in 4 of 10 patients and ineffective for the two other patients. No clinical modifications were observed following ofatumumab introduction. Ofatumumab administration leads to a rapid and important exhaustion of complement C4 levels in patients with initial lymphocytosis. C4 exhaustion was accelerated in a non-responder patient, and incomplete in two patients with partial circulating depletion. Moreover, delaying weekly to monthly ofatumumab injections improved CLL cell depletion in two patients. FcγRIIIA 158 polymorphism (FF n = 6 and VF n = 4) was not associated with major and/or partial circulating CLL cell depletion. In conclusion, ofatumumab induces an important C4 exhaustion that needs to be taken into account when treating CLL patients with ofatumumab. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Guerrier T.,iGo | Pochard P.,iGo | Lahiri A.,iGo | Youinou P.,iGo | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Autoimmunity | Year: 2014

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are positioned at the interface between innate and adaptive immunity. Unlike others, those such as TLR9, that recognize nucleic acids, are confined to the endosomal compartment and are scarce on the cell surface. Here, we present evidence for TLR9 expression on the plasma membrane of B cells. In contrast to endosomal TLR9, cell surface TLR9 does not bind CpG-B oligodeoxynucleotides. After B cell-receptor (BCR) stimulation, TLR9 was translocated into lipid rafts with the BCR, suggesting that it could serve as a co-receptor for BCR. Nevertheless, stimulation of B cells with anti-TLR9 antibodies did not modify the BCR-induced responses despite up-regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins. However, CpG-B activation of B cells, acting synergistically with BCR signals, was inhibited by anti-TLR9 stimulation. Induction of CD25 expression and proliferation of B cells were thus down-regulated by the engagement of cell surface TLR9. Overall, our results indicate that TLR9 expressed on the plasma membrane of B cells might be a negative regulator of endosomal TLR9, and could provide a novel control by which activation of autoreactive B cells is restrained. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Le Dantec C.,European University of Brittany | Vallet S.,University of Western Brittany | Brooks W.H.,University of South Florida | Renaudineau Y.,European University of Brittany | Renaudineau Y.,Laboratory of Immunology and Immunotherapy
Viruses | Year: 2015

Human endogenous retrovirus group E (HERV-E) elements are stably integrated into the human genome, transmitted vertically in a Mendelian manner, and are endowed with transcriptional activity as alternative promoters or enhancers. Such effects are under the control of the proviral long terminal repeats (LTR) that are organized into three HERV-E phylogenetic subgroups, namely LTR2, LTR2B, and LTR2C. Moreover, HERV-E expression is tissue-specific, and silenced by epigenetic constraints that may be disrupted in cancer, autoimmunity, and human placentation. Interest in HERV-E with regard to these conditions has been stimulated further by concerns regarding the capacity of HERV-E elements to modify the expression of neighboring genes and/or to produce retroviral proteins, including immunosuppressive env peptides, which in turn may induce (auto)-antibody (Ab) production. Finally, better understanding of HERV-E elements may have clinical applications for prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Brooks W.H.,University of South Florida | Renaudineau Y.,European University of Brittany | Renaudineau Y.,Laboratory of Immunology and Immunotherapy
Frontiers in Genetics | Year: 2015

Autoimmune diseases occur more often in females, suggesting a key role for the X chromosome. X chromosome inactivation, a major epigenetic feature in female cells that provides dosage compensation of X-linked genes to avoid overexpression, presents special vulnerabilities that can contribute to the disease process. Disruption of X inactivation can result in loss of dosage compensation with expression from previously sequestered genes, imbalance of gene products, and altered endogenous material out of normal epigenetic context. In addition, the human X has significant differences compared to other species and these differences can contribute to the frequency and intensity of the autoimmune disease in humans as well as the types of autoantigens encountered. Here a link is demonstrated between autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, and the X chromosome by discussing cases in which typically non-autoimmune disorders complicated with X chromosome abnormalities also present lupus-like symptoms. The discussion is then extended to the reported spatial and temporal associations of the inactive X chromosome with the nucleolus. When frequent episodes of cellular stress occur, the inactive X chromosome may be disrupted and inadvertently become involved in the nucleolar stress response. Development of autoantigens, many of which are at least transiently components of the nucleolus, is then described. Polyamines, which aid in nucleoprotein complex assembly in the nucleolus, increase further during cell stress, and appear to have an important role in the autoimmune disease process. Autoantigenic endogenous material can potentially be stabilized by polyamines. This presents a new paradigm for autoimmune diseases: that many are antigen-driven and the autoantigens originate from altered endogenous material due to episodes of cellular stress that disrupt epigenetic control. This suggests that epigenetics and the X chromosome are important aspects of autoimmune diseases. © 2015 Brooks and Renaudineau.

Bagacean C.,European University of Brittany | Bagacean C.,University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca | Zdrenghea M.,University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca | Zdrenghea M.,Ion Chiricuta Institute of Oncology | And 4 more authors.
Immunotherapy | Year: 2016

Over the last two decades, anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy has improved patient outcome in B-cell malignancies, and confirmed CD20 as an important target in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Until recently, the gold standard was based on the utilization of rituximab combined with chemotherapy (fludarabine and cyclophosphamide), but patients often relapse. Next, with our better understanding of mAb engineering, anti-CD20 mAb therapy has evolved with the development of new mAb permitting significant clinical responses by improving pharmacokinetics, safety, activity and immunogenicity. Last but not least, the development of key tumoral tyrosine kinase inhibitors and their association with anti-CD20 mAb is a work in progress with promising results. © 2016 Future Medicine Ltd.

Mohr A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Renaudineau Y.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Renaudineau Y.,Laboratory of Immunology and Immunotherapy | Bagacean C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 5 more authors.
OncoImmunology | Year: 2016

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by an abnormal expansion of mature B cells in the bone marrow and their accumulation in blood and secondary lymphoid organs. Tumor CLL cells share expression of various surface molecules with many subsets of B cells and have several common characteristics with regulatory B cells (B regs). However, the identification of B regs and their role in CLL remain elusive. The aim of this review is to summarize recent works regarding the regulatory and phenotypic characteristic of B regs and their associated effects on the immune system. It is also meant to highlight their potential importance with regards to the immunotherapeutic response. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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