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Estrada-Capetillo B.L.,Laboratory of Immunology and Cellular and Molecular Biology | Ortiz-Perez M.D.,University of Sfax | Salgado-Bustamante M.,University of Sfax | Calderon-Aranda E.,CINVESTAV | And 5 more authors.
Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis | Year: 2014

Humans may be exposed to arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) through water consumption. However, the interaction between these two elements and gene expression in apoptosis or inflammatory processes in children has not been thoroughly investigated. Herein, the expression of cIAP-1, XIAP, TNF-α, ENA-78, survivin, CD25, and CD40 was evaluated by RT-PCR. Additionally, the surface expression of CD25, CD40, and CD40L on peripheral blood mononuclear cells was analyzed by flow cytometry, and TNF-α was measured by Western blotting. This study examined 72 children aged 6-12 years who were chronically exposed to As (154.2μg/L) and F (5.3mg/L) in drinking water and in food cooked with the same water. The urine concentrations of As (6.9-122.4μg/L) were positively correlated with the urine concentrations of F (1.0-8.8mg/L) (r2=0.413, p<0.0001). The CD25 gene expression levels and urine concentrations of As and F were negatively correlated, though the CD40 expression levels were negatively correlated only with the As concentration. Age and height influenced the expression of cIAP-1, whereas XIAP expression was correlated only with age. Additionally, there was a lower percentage of CD25- and CD40-positive cells in the group of 6- to 8-year-old children exposed to the highest concentrations of both As and F when compared to the 9- to 12-year-old group (CD25: 0.7±0.8 vs. 1.1±0.9, p<0.0014; CD40: 16.0±7.0 vs. 21.8±5.8, p<0.0003). PHA-stimulated lymphocytes did not show any changes in the induction of CD25, CD69, or CD95. In summary, high concentrations of As and F alter the expression patterns of CD25 and CD40 at both the genetic and protein levels. These changes could decrease immune responses in children exposed to As and F. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Corral-Fernandez N.E.,Laboratory of Immunology and Cellular and Molecular Biology | Cortez-Espinosa N.,Laboratory of Immunology and Cellular and Molecular Biology | Salgado-Bustamante M.,University of Sfax | Romano-Moreno S.,Laboratory of Pharmacy | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Immunology | Year: 2016

The BCG vaccine induces a Th1 phenotype, which is essential for protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the effects of BCG vaccination over time on the T helper subpopulation and the microRNAs involved in adulthood have not been studied. In the present study, we explored the involvement of microRNAs, transcription factors and multifunctional cytokines in BCG vaccination by examining their levels both before and after vaccination of healthy adults. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained at 0, 2 and 6 months after vaccination. Cells were cultured in the presence or absence of ESAT-6-6 and CFP-10-10 or M. tuberculosis filtrate. The expression levels of miRNAs and transcription factors were evaluated using qRT-PCR. Cytokine production in supernatants and serum samples was evaluated using ELISA. Multifunctional CD4+ T cells were analyzed using multiparametric flow cytometry. We observed a decrease in the expression levels of T-BET, GATA3 and FOXP3 at 2 months and miR-146a, miR-326 and miR-155 at 6 months after receiving the vaccine. In the supernatant, the production of IL-17 was increased after 6 months, with both stimuli. In contrast, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ increased at 2 months. In the serum, high levels of IL-10 were found after 2 months compared to time 0 and 6 months. The production of multifunctional cells that expressed the cytokine profiles CD4+TNF-α+IFN-γ-IL-10-, CD4+TNF-α+IL-1IFN-γ-, CD4+IL-10+IFN-γ-TNF-α- and CD4+IL-17+IFN-γ- predominantly increased after 2 months with and without the stimulus. Correlation analysis revealed a negative association between FOXP3 and miR-155 (r = −0.5120, p = 0.0176) and between IL-17 and miR-326 (r = −0.5832, p = 0.0364). This study is the first to demonstrate roles for microRNAs, transcription factors and cytokines in the T helper differentiation lineage and to describe the possible mechanism by which their expression is modulated by the presence of the BCG vaccine in adulthood. In conclusion, our results suggest that the BCG vaccine induces a modulation in transcription factors and miRNAs with high production of multifunctional cells CD4+TNF-α+IL-10+IFN-γ-. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

PubMed | Laboratory of Immunology and Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Sfax, Unit of Medicine Investigation IMSS and San Luis Potosí Institute of Scientific Research and Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Immunobiology | Year: 2015

Regulatory T cells that express CD39 (CD39+ Treg) exhibit specific immunomodulatory properties. Ectonucleotidase CD39 hydrolyses ATP and ADP. ATP is a ligand of the P2X7 receptor and induces the shedding of CD62L and apoptosis. However, the role of ATP in CD39+ Treg cells has not been defined. Furthermore, NAD can activate the P2X7 receptor via ADP-ribosyltransferase (ART) enzymes and cause cell depletion in murine models. We evaluated the expression and function of P2X7 and ART1 in CD39+ Treg and CD39- Treg cells in the presence or absence of ATP and NAD. We isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy subjects and purified CD4+ T cells, CD4+ CD25+ T cells and CD4+ CD25+ CD39+ T cells. P2X7 and ART1 expression was assessed by flow cytometry and real-time PCR. Our results showed low P2X7 expression on CD39+ Treg cells and higher levels of ART1 expression in CD4+ CD39+ T cells than the other subtypes studied. Neither shedding of CD62L nor cell death of CD39+ Treg or CD39- Treg cells was observed by 1mM ATP or 60M NAD. In contrast, P2Xs receptor-dependent proliferation with 300M ATP, was inhibited by NAD in the different cell types analysed. The NAD proliferation-inhibition was increased with P2Xs and A2a agonist and was reversed with P2Xs and A2a antagonist, therefore NAD inhibits P2Xs-dependent proliferation and A2a activation. In conclusion, our results suggest that the altered function and expression of P2X7 and ART1 in the human CD39+ Treg or CD39- Treg cells could participate in the resistance against cell death induced by ATP or NAD.

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