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Brugman S.,University Utrecht | Brugman S.,Wageningen University | Schneeberger K.,University Utrecht | Witte M.,University Utrecht | And 10 more authors.
Gut Microbes | Year: 2015

Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbial community is considered a risk factor for development of chronic intestinal inflammation as well as other diseases such as diabetes, obesity and even cancer. Study of the innate and adaptive immune pathways controlling bacterial colonization has however proven difficult in rodents, considering the extensive cross-talk between bacteria and innate and adaptive immunity. Here, we used the zebrafish to study innate and adaptive immune processes controlling the microbial community. Zebrafish lack a functional adaptive immune system in the first weeks of life, enabling study of the innate immune system in the absence of adaptive immunity. We show that in wild type zebrafish, the initial lack of adaptive immunity associates with overgrowth of Vibrio species (a group encompassing fish and human pathogens), which is overcome upon adaptive immune development. In Rag1-deficient zebrafish (lacking adaptive immunity) Vibrio abundance remains high, suggesting that adaptive immune processes indeed control Vibrio species. Using cell transfer experiments, we confirm that adoptive transfer of T lymphocytes, but not B lymphocytes into Rag1-deficient recipients suppresses outgrowth of Vibrio. In addition, ex vivo exposure of intestinal T lymphocytes to Rag1-deficient microbiota results in increased interferon-gamma expression by these T lymphocytes, compared to exposure to wild type microbiota. In conclusion, we show that T lymphocytes control microbial composition by effectively suppressing the outgrowth of Vibrio species in the zebrafish intestine. © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Eyrich M.,University of Wurzburg | Schreiber S.C.,University of Wurzburg | Rachor J.,University of Wurzburg | Krauss J.,University of Wurzburg | And 7 more authors.
Cytotherapy | Year: 2014

Background and aims: One of the major challenges of dendritic cell (DC) vaccination is the establishment of harmonized DC production protocols. Here, we report the transfer and validation of a successfully used open DC manufacturing method into a closed system, good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compatible protocol. Methods: All production steps (lysate generation, monocyte selection, DC culture and cryopreservation) were standardized and validated. Results: Tumor lysate was characterized by histology, mechanically homogenized and avitalized. This preparation yielded a median of 58 ± 21 μg protein per milligram of tumor tissue. Avitality was determined by trypan blue staining and confirmed in an adenosine triphosphate release assay. Patient monocytes were isolated by elutriation or CD14 selection, which yielded equivalent results. DCs were subsequently differentiated in Teflon bags for an optimum of 7 days in CellGro medium supplemented with interleukin (IL)-4 and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor and then matured for 48 h in tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-1ß after pulsing with tumor lysate. This protocol resulted in robust and reproducible upregulation of DC maturation markers such as cluster of differentiation (CD)80, CD83, CD86, human leukocyte antigen-DR and DC-SIGN. Functionality of these DCs was shown by directed migration toward C-C motif chemokine ligand 19/21, positive T-cell stimulatory capacity and the ability to prime antigen-specific T cells from naive CD8+ T cells. Phenotype stability, vitality and functionality of DCs after cryopreservation, thawing and washing showed no significant loss of function. Comparison of clinical data from 146 patients having received vaccinations with plate-adherence versus GMP-grade DCs showed no inferiority of the latter. Conclusions: Our robust, validated and approved protocol for DC manufacturing forms the basis for a harmonized procedure to produce cancer vaccines, which paves the way for larger multi-center clinical trials. © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Source

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