Laboratory of Immunity and Infection

South Orange, NJ, United States

Laboratory of Immunity and Infection

South Orange, NJ, United States
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Pena G.,Laboratory of Immunity and Infection | Cai B.,Laboratory of Immunity and Infection | Liu J.,Laboratory of Immunity and Infection | Deitch E.A.,Laboratory of Immunity and Infection | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Immunology | Year: 2010

The role of STAT3 in infectious diseases remains undetermined, in part because unphosphorylated STAT3 has been considered an inactive protein. Here, we report that unphosphorylated STAT3 contributes to cholinergic anti-inflammation, prevents systemic inflammation, and improves survival in sepsis. Bacterial endotoxin induced STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation in macrophages. Both alpha7 nicotinic receptor (alpha7nAChR) activation and inhibition of JAK2 blunt STAT3 phosphorylation. Inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation mimicked the alpha7nAChR signaling, inhibiting NF-κB and cytokine production in macrophages. Transfection of macrophages with the dominant-negative mutant STAT3F, to prevent its tyrosine phosphorylation, reduced TNF production but did not prevent the alpha7nAChR signaling. However, inhibition of STAT3 protein expression enhanced cytokine production and abrogated alpha7nAChR signaling. Alpha7nAChR controls TNF production in macrophages through a mechanism that requires STAT3 protein expression, but not its tyrosine phosphorylation. In vivo, inhibition of STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation by stattic prevented systemic inflammation and improved survival in experimental sepsis. Stattic also prevented the production of late mediators of sepsis and improved survival in established sepsis. These results reveal the immunological implications of tyrosine-unphosphorylated STAT3 in infectious diseases. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.


Combadiere B.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Combadiere B.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Combadiere B.,Laboratory of Immunity and Infection | Vogt A.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | And 20 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background:Current conventional vaccination approaches do not induce potent CD8 T-cell responses for fighting mostly variable viral diseases such as influenza, avian influenza viruses or HIV. Following our recent study on vaccine penetration by targeting of vaccine to human hair follicular ducts surrounded by Langerhans cells, we tested in the first randomized Phase-Ia trial based on hair follicle penetration (namely transcutaneous route) the induction of virus-specific CD8 T cell responses. Methods and Findings: We chose the inactivated influenza vaccine - a conventional licensed tetanus/influenza (TETAGRIP®) vaccine - to compare the safety and immunogenicity of transcutaneous (TC) versus IM immunization in two randomized controlled, multi-center Phase I trials including 24 healthy-volunteers and 12 HIV-infected patients. Vaccination was performed by application of inactivated influenza vaccine according to a standard protocol allowing the opening of the hair duct for the TC route or needle-injection for the IM route. We demonstrated that the safety of the two routes was similar. We showed the superiority of TC application, but not the IM route, to induce a significant increase in influenza-specific CD8 cytokine-producing cells in healthy-volunteers and in HIV-infected patients. However, these routes did not differ significantly for the induction of influenza-specific CD4 responses, and neutralizing antibodies were induced only by the IM route. The CD8 cell response is thus the major immune response observed after TC vaccination. Conclusions: This Phase Ia clinical trial (Manon05) testing an anti-influenza vaccine demonstrated that vaccines designed for antibody induction by the IM route, generate vaccine-specific CD8 T cells when administered transcutaneously. These results underline the necessity of adapting vaccination strategies to control complex infectious diseases when CD8 cellular responses are crucial. Our work opens up a key area for the development of preventive and therapeutic vaccines for diseases in which CD8 cells play a crucial role. © 2010 Combadière et al.


Combadiere B.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Combadiere B.,Laboratory of Immunity and Infection | Siberil S.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Duffy D.,University Pierre and Marie Curie
Pathologie Biologie | Year: 2010

Protection against pathogens is mediated by both humoral responses (neutralizing antibodies) and cellular immunity, both CD4+ and CD8+ cells. In the case of influenza viruses, circulating strains contain both variable and conserved T and B cell epitopes that are challenged after vaccination and/or infection. During infection, the role of T cells is to prevent viral dissemination in the organism by killing the infected cells and helping B cell antibody production to neutralize the virus. The threat of influenza virus increases the preparedness of protective immunity to pandemic and seasonal infection by vaccination. Several questions remain that need to be further addressed for the future development of innovative and rapidly efficient vaccines strategies. Firstly, what are the correlates of long-term protection (antibodies and/or T cells) against variant strains of influenza? How does the individual factors (age, natural immunity, vaccination and/or infection history) influence the generation and maintenance of memory cells? What are the factors allowing the maintenance of immune memory (regular contact with the pathogen or re-vaccination)? Secondly, what is the nature and quality (function / phenotype / location) of memory B and T cells? Finally, is it necessary to induce and maintain immunological memory against conserved proteins and/or to re-vaccinate against viral variants? What would be the consequences of repeated vaccination? These questions remain a subject of debate that will be further discussed. Since immunological memory is the cornerstone of vaccination, it is essential that we have a better understanding of its generation and maintenance over time as well as its contribution to recall responses during pandemics or after vaccination. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS.


PubMed | Laboratory of Immunity and Infection
Type: Journal Article | Journal: FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology | Year: 2011

The nervous system is classically organized into sympathetic and parasympathetic systems acting in opposition to maintain physiological homeostasis. Here, we report that both systems converge in the activation of 2-adrenoceptors of splenic regulatory lymphocytes to control systemic inflammation. Vagus nerve stimulation fails to control serum TNF levels in either 2-knockout or lymphocyte-deficient nude mice. Unlike typical suppressor CD25(+) cells, the transfer of CD4(+)CD25(-) regulatory lymphocytes reestablishes the anti-inflammatory potential of the vagus nerve and 2-agonists to control inflammation in both 2-knockout and nude mice. 2-Agonists inhibit cytokine production in splenocytes (IC(50) 1 M) and prevent systemic inflammation in wild-type but not in 2-knockout mice. 2-Agonists rescue wild-type mice from established polymicrobial peritonitis in a clinically relevant time frame. Regulatory lymphocytes reestablish the anti-inflammatory potential of 2-agonists to control systemic inflammation, organ damage, and lethal endotoxic shock in 2-knockout mice. These results indicate that 2-adrenoceptors in regulatory lymphocytes are critical for the anti-inflammatory potential of the parasympathetic vagus nerve, and they represent a potential pharmacological target for sepsis.


PubMed | Laboratory of Immunity and Infection
Type: Journal Article | Journal: European journal of immunology | Year: 2010

The role of STAT3 in infectious diseases remains undetermined, in part because unphosphorylated STAT3 has been considered an inactive protein. Here, we report that unphosphorylated STAT3 contributes to cholinergic anti-inflammation, prevents systemic inflammation, and improves survival in sepsis. Bacterial endotoxin induced STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation in macrophages. Both alpha 7 nicotinic receptor (alpha 7nAChR) activation and inhibition of JAK2 blunt STAT3 phosphorylation. Inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation mimicked the alpha 7nAChR signaling, inhibiting NF-kappaB and cytokine production in macrophages. Transfection of macrophages with the dominant-negative mutant STAT3F, to prevent its tyrosine phosphorylation, reduced TNF production but did not prevent the alpha 7nAChR signaling. However, inhibition of STAT3 protein expression enhanced cytokine production and abrogated alpha 7nAChR signaling. Alpha 7nAChR controls TNF production in macrophages through a mechanism that requires STAT3 protein expression, but not its tyrosine phosphorylation. In vivo, inhibition of STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation by stattic prevented systemic inflammation and improved survival in experimental sepsis. Stattic also prevented the production of late mediators of sepsis and improved survival in established sepsis. These results reveal the immunological implications of tyrosine-unphosphorylated STAT3 in infectious diseases.

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