Laboratory of Hydrobiology

Marrakesh, Morocco

Laboratory of Hydrobiology

Marrakesh, Morocco
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Laaffat J.,Cadi Ayyad University | Laaffat J.,Laboratory of Hydrobiology | Aziz F.,Cadi Ayyad University | Ouazzani N.,Cadi Ayyad University | And 3 more authors.
Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2017

A level of water quality intended for human consumption does not seem necessary for domestic uses such as irrigation of green spaces. Alternative water supplies like the use of greywater (GW) can thus be considered. However, GW contains pathogenic microorganisms and organic compounds which can cause environmental and health risks. As the risks related to recycling are unknown, GW treatment is necessary before reusing. To describe the risks related to GW reuses, the scientific approach performed in this study was to characterize domestic GW in order to select an appropriate treatment. The biotechnology chosen is a Horizontal sub-surface flow constructed wetland reactor. In order to minimize health risks, an optimization step based on UV disinfection was performed. The treatment performances were then determined. The treated GW produced in this study reached the threshold values expected by the Moroccan regulation for irrigation of green spaces with treated wastewater. Indeed, the COD and the TSS obtained in treated GW without disinfection are respectively 16.6mgO2 L-1 and 0.40mgL-1. The horizontal sub-surface flow constructed wetland (HSSF CW) reactor has been used to treat 1.2m3/d of GW for 100days. Three lawn plots have been irrigated respectively with raw GW, treated GW and tap water as a reference. Contrary to the lawn plot irrigated with raw GW, the risk analysis performed in this study has shown no significant difference between the law plots irrigated with treated GW combined with UV disinfection and the one irrigated with tap water. Overall, UV disinfection treated GW produced from the HSSF CW reactor developed in this experiment is thought to be an effective and feasible alternative for agricultural reuse. © 2017 The Authors.


El Fadeli S.,Laboratory of Hydrobiology | El Fadeli S.,ETH Zurich | Bouhouch R.,ETH Zurich | Chaik M.,Laboratory of Hydrobiology | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Materials and Environmental Science | Year: 2014

The aim of this study is to investigate lead contamination in food chain and evaluate the consequent health risks to local residents in three different sites in the Marrakech urban area, compared to a rural reference region far from any source of lead contamination. The following three urban sites that have been selected to have different potential routes of lead exposure: a) old unimproved water pipes (the Medina); b) agricultural land irrigated from untreated urban wastewater (El Azzozia); and c) a mining site (Drâa Lesfer region) were considered in this study. Samples were collected from three compartments: drinking water, soils and plants (edible part). The levels of lead contamination in these compartments were measured. Transfer factors of lead from soils to plants and the eventual health risk of this metal were calculated. The results showed that lead concentration in drinking water of all sites was below the drinking water safety limit. However, soils and plants from mining site were heavily contaminated as compared to the other sites. Consequently, the oral intakes of lead from local plant foods may pose a high health risk to local residents in the mining site and in the wastewater irrigation sites.


Aziz F.,Laboratory of Hydrobiology | Aziz F.,Cadi Ayyad University | Ouazzani N.,Laboratory of Hydrobiology | Ouazzani N.,Cadi Ayyad University | And 4 more authors.
Separation Science and Technology (Philadelphia) | Year: 2016

Composite nanofibers containing polyacrylonitrile and natural clay particles were fabricated and investigated for the removal of Pb(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption behavior of Pb(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) can be well described by the Langmuir adsorption model and high loading capacities at pH 7 were obtained. The kinetics of the adsorption process showed that equilibrium was attained after 60 min and the experimental data followed a pseudo-first-order model. The nanocomposites were also tested for photocatalytic degradation of Monocrotophos pesticides in which high degradation efficiency (>90%) was obtained in less than 60 min. © 2016 Taylor & Francis


Latrach L.,Cadi Ayyad University | Latrach L.,Laboratory of Hydrobiology | Ouazzani N.,Cadi Ayyad University | Ouazzani N.,Laboratory of Hydrobiology | And 6 more authors.
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2016

This study aims to present the removal of bacterial indicators of fecal contamination and parasites in a combined treatment using a multi-soil-layering system with sand filters (MSL-SF). This experiment was carried out in a laboratory scale. The MSL pilot (height 65 cm, width 36 cm, depth 30 cm) was composed of soil mixture layers (SML) and gravel layers that are arranged in a brick-layer like pattern. The soil mixture layers are composed of local sandy soil mixed with sawdust, metal iron and charcoal at the ratio of 70, 10, 10 and 10%, respectively, on a dry weight basis. The applied hydraulic loading rate (HLR) was 200 L m-2 day-1. The experimental sand filter included three parallel similar sand columns (inside diameter 12.5 cm, height 120 cm). Each column was filled with 80 cm of fine sand and 10 cm of gravel in the top and the bottom of the filter. Three sand columns HLRs (100, 200 and 400 L m-2 day-1) were compared. The obtained results indicated that the conceptual model based on the combination of the MSL method and sand filter (MSL-SF) showed very high efficiency in organic matter, nutrients, bacteria and the reduction of parasites. The high performances were noted in the low HLR. The main removal percentage of SS, BOD5, COD, TN and TP were respectively 99.73, 97.78, 98.40, 92.93 and 96.21% for the HLR-100. In addition, the Log10 removal for total coliforms, fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci were 4.46, 4.47 and 4.13 Log unit respectively. MSL-SF is capable of removing 100% of helminthes eggs. The MSL system is an efficient method, especially for organic matter and nutrients (N, P) removal. Sand filters have experimentally been proved to be useful for fecal indicators and the removal of parasites. Good operational stability and high contaminants removal efficiency of the combined systems were observed. Therefore, the combination of the MSL system and sand filter offer a good alternative option for agricultural wastewater reuse. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Laaffat J.,Cadi Ayyad University | Laaffat J.,Laboratory of Hydrobiology | Ouazzani N.,Cadi Ayyad University | Ouazzani N.,Laboratory of Hydrobiology | And 2 more authors.
Process Safety and Environmental Protection | Year: 2015

The potential purification of an horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSFCW) treating greywater in a Moroccan primary school was investigated according to the monitoring of water quality parameters over a period of 100 days through two simultaneous stages: first, an internal three dimensional grid of sampling ports; secondly, an entry and exit. The calibration of the relaxed TIS concentration model based on tank in series hydraulic assumption with experimental data gave the frequency distribution profiles of K-rate constant values for the three parameters: BOD5, COD and TN, whose maximum values are respectively 50 m/yr, 70 m/yr, and 42 m/yr. The HSSFCW system has higher K-rate coefficient for all the three parameters at the bottom layer compared with the surface layer, with increasing K-rates over length. The analysis of bacteriological and chemical results has shown that the HSSFCW could not completely remove all pollutants (especially TN and TP), but it could be used successfully to upgrade the quality of greywater to an acceptable level. However, we predict that there will be an increase in removal efficiencies with time bearing in mind that the system is newly implemented.


Baroud S.,Université Ibn Tofail | Belghyti D.,Université Ibn Tofail | Aziz F.,Cadi Ayyad University | Aziz F.,Laboratory of Hydrobiology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Materials and Environmental Science | Year: 2015

The present study aimed to characterize raw wastewater of Khenifra city (Morocco), to evaluate pollution in relation to the demographic and socio-economic profiles of the population connected to the network sanitation, and interpreting the results with the contribution of ACP. The physico-chemical characterization of raw wastewater revealed that liquid effluents are loaded with organic matter in terms of COD (COD average = 556.02 mg/L) whether a load of 3373.94 kg/day, a BOD5 (Avg. = 284.55 mg/L) with a load of about 1731.20 kg /day. TSS (Avg. = 239.20 mg/L) whether a load of about 1457.04 kg/day, and mineral expressed in terms of electrical conductivity (Avg. = 1801.61 μS/cm) with a pH of 8.13. The mean levels of total phosphorus and TKN are of the order of 94.07 mg/L and 12.17 mg/L, respectively. Although these wastewater has a high organic load (BOD5 /COD = 0.51 and MES/BOD5 = 0.85) they have satisfactory biodegradability. The exam of ratio COD/BOD5 = 2.00 highlights the good biodegradability which biological treatment seems entirely appropriate. Statistical analysis of the results by principal component analysis (PCA) performed on 56 individuals and 9 variables (Flow rate, Temperature, EC, TSS, TKN, TP, COD, BOD5) show the existence of a strong positive and significant correlation between the TSS, BOD5, COD and electrical conductivity. The factorial plan F1, axis of pollution, represents 42.44% of the variance. The second plan F2 represents only 25.24%.


El-Fadeli S.,Laboratory of Hydrobiology | Bouhouch S.,Laboratory of Human Ecology | Skalny A.V.,Yaroslavl State University | Barkouch Y.,Regional Laboratory of Epidemiological Diagnosis and Environmental Health | And 3 more authors.
Biological Trace Element Research | Year: 2016

The major environmental factor that determines goiter prevalence is iodine status. However, other trace elements like selenium and zinc can influence the thyroid function. Hair samples (n = 68) were collected from goitrous and non-goitrous children aged 8–12 years living in the area of Al Haouz Marrakech-(Morocco). Trace element concentrations (Cr, Fe, Mg, Zn, Se, I) in hair were measured using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Difference in the mean concentration of each trace element between groups was determined by ANOVA test. The mean concentration levels of I, Se, and Zn for goitrous children were lower and were similar to the mean concentrations reported in the literature for subjects with goiter. The regression results gave us a better model that revealed significant positive relations between thyroid volume and Zn contents and significant negative relation with I and Se. The overall findings of the present study revealed that the actual factors of thyroid gland volume increase are I and Se deficiency. This work could shed some light on the effects of trace elements—other than iodine—on the thyroid disorders. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


PubMed | Laboratory of Hydrobiology, Yaroslavl State University, Regional Laboratory of Epidemiological Diagnosis and Environmental Health, Laboratory of Human Ecology and Laboratory of Toxicology and Industrial Hygiene
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biological trace element research | Year: 2016

The major environmental factor that determines goiter prevalence is iodine status. However, other trace elements like selenium and zinc can influence the thyroid function. Hair samples (n = 68) were collected from goitrous and non-goitrous children aged 8-12 years living in the area of Al Haouz Marrakech-(Morocco). Trace element concentrations (Cr, Fe, Mg, Zn, Se, I) in hair were measured using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Difference in the mean concentration of each trace element between groups was determined by ANOVA test. The mean concentration levels of I, Se, and Zn for goitrous children were lower and were similar to the mean concentrations reported in the literature for subjects with goiter. The regression results gave us a better model that revealed significant positive relations between thyroid volume and Zn contents and significant negative relation with I and Se. The overall findings of the present study revealed that the actual factors of thyroid gland volume increase are I and Se deficiency. This work could shed some light on the effects of trace elements-other than iodine-on the thyroid disorders.


Neffa M.,Laboratory of Chemistry Bioorganic and Macromolecular LCBM | Hanine H.,Sultan Moulay Slimane University | Lekhlif B.,Center Detudes Et Of Recherches En Ressources En Eau Cerhydreau | Ouazzani N.,Laboratory of Hydrobiology | Taourirte M.,Laboratory of Chemistry Bioorganic and Macromolecular LCBM
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2014

Olive mill wastewaters (OMWW) are a significant source of potential or existing environmental pollution in the Mediterranean countries. Treatment and reuse of OMWW present significant challenges, both due to the nature of olive oil production (seasonal and concentration in a small scale) and due to the characteristics of the wastewater (high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and high phenolic content). In the present work, experiments of different pretreatment methods were undertaken and compared in order to select the most adequate process to be applied before biological treatment of OMWW. In fact, three different pretreatments were tested and compared: two different coagulants (alginate and Kim2120) and electrocoagulation (EC) process. At the second stage, biological treatment (using white-rot fungus) was investigated. Tests were conducted with raw OMWW and with OMWW diluted in 50% tap water and adjusted to a neutral pH with lime. The raw effluent presents high COD (178 g O2 l-1), about 6.4 g l-1 of total suspended solids (TSS), a high conductivity (29 mS cm-1), acidic pH 4.8, and turbidity of 90 NTU. Results show that after 90 min of EC process, using 15 V/m2 voltage, a maximum of 49% of organic matter removals was achieved. The optimum removals of COD and turbidity obtained were 39 and 75%, respectively when 20 mg l-1 dose of alginate is used, especially at pH 7. Coagulation using Kim2120 at 10 mg l-1 applied on diluted OMWW showed reduction reaching 52.3% of COD and 85% of turbidity. The maximum removal of total polyphenols, tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol obtained were 60.1, 23.1, and 59.1% with lime/alginate and 64.2, 67.8, and 76.3% with lime/kim2120, respectively. Only 57% of polyphenols was removed by EC. The pretreated effluents by different physicochemical processes tested showed that the best yields were obtained with lime/kim2120. The pretreated olive mill wastewater was then treated aerobically with white-rot fungus. The results showed that the white-rot fungus was capable of reducing 68% and 75% of COD, respectively for the diluted OMWW and pretreated by lime or lime/Kim2120, after only 5 days of growth. The best biological treatment was obtained with neutral pH. © 2013 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Laboratory of Hydrobiology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of water and health | Year: 2013

Traditional reservoirs for water storage are important systems of water supply in rural areas of Morocco. These reservoirs are fed by rainwater and/or directly from rivers through open channels; the stored water is used without any treatment as drinking water by the surrounding population. The present study aimed to assess the physicochemical and bacteriological quality of stored water and the corresponding sediment in six traditional reservoirs (R1 to R6) located in the rural municipality of Assif El Mal. We tested two inexpensive methods of disinfecting the stored water: chlorination and solar disinfection in bottles. The results show a rise of organic and mineral concentrations. Regarding bacteriological quality, a critical contamination level was detected (8 10(5) CFU/100 ml in water and 9 10(7) CFU/g in sediment) according to the 2002 Moroccan Standards for drinking water (0 CFU/100 ml). In the disinfection tests, chlorine disinfection removed all studied germs after just 1 hour, and the solar exposure process removed the majority of bacteria (after 3 hours) except those with a resistant form (Clostridia).

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