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Zhang B.,Zhejiang University | Zhang B.,Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth | Shen J.-Y.,Zhejiang University | Wei W.-W.,Zhejiang University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

Changes in characteristic aroma volatiles, levels of fatty acids as aroma precursors, and expression patterns of related genes, including lipoxygenase (LOX), hydroperoxide lyase (HPL), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), alcohol acyltransferase (AAT), and fatty acid desaturase (FAD), were studied in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch., cv. Yulu) fruit during postharvest ripening at 20 °C. Concentrations of n-hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexenol, and (Z)-3-hexenol decreased, whereas the production of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, γ-hexalactone, γ-octalactone, γ-decalactone, and δ-decalactone increased with fruit ripening. Lactones showed a clear pattern concomitant with the climacteric rise in ethylene production, with γ-decalactone being the principal volatile compound at the late ripening stage. Of the LOX family genes, PpLOX2 and PpLOX3 had relatively high transcript levels initially followed by a decline with fruit ripening, while levels of PpLOX1 and PpLOX4 transcripts were upregulated by accumulated ethylene production. Expression of PpHPL1, PpADH1, PpADH2, and PpADH3 showed similar decreasing patterns during ripening. Expression levels of PpAAT1 showed a rapid increase during the first 2 days of postharvest ripening followed by a gradual decrease. Contents of polyunsaturated linoleic and linolenic acids increased, and saturated palmitic acid levels tended to decline as the fruit ripened. The increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids closely paralleled increasing expression of PpFAD1 and PpFAD2. The significance of gene expression changes in relation to aroma volatile production is discussed. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Yu X.,Zhejiang University | Yu X.,Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth | Lu H.,Zhejiang University | Lu H.,Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports

In our previous study, we bred a stable cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) line of tuber mustard by using distant hybridization and subsequent backcrosses. In this CMS plants, all floral organs are normal except the anthers, which are transformed into petals or tubular structures. Recently, 2 mitochondrial genes-atpA and orf220-that are distinctively present in the CMS line of tuber mustard were cloned and partially characterized. In our study of genetic diversity analysis of CMS, 7 species of Brassica and Raphanus crops, which included 5 CMS lines and their respective maintainer lines, were used to compare the constitution of protein-coding genes in the mitochondrial genomes. In 4 of the 43 mitochondrial genes, namely, atpA, orf220, orf256, and orf305/orf324, polymorphisms were detected among the tuber mustard CMS line and its maintainer line. The results of a cluster analysis indicate that petaloid CMS phenotype of tuber mustard is a novel CMS type and is nearer to the nap CMS in Brassica napus at the phylogenetic level. The results of individual amplifications of these genes indicate the presence of 4 sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers, which enable rapid and reliable identification of this CMS. Expressions of the orf220 and orf256 genes were detected only in the CMS line, while expression of the orf305 gene was detected in the maintainer line. The different expression patterns of different mitochondrial-specific marker genes indicate that the quantity of mitochondrial proteins is differentially regulated during organ/tissue development in tuber mustard. The results of this study suggest that the above mentioned 4 mitochondrial genes are associated with the petaloid CMS phenotype in tuber mustard. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009. Source

Qian C.-L.,Zhejiang University | Qian C.-L.,Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth | Qi X.-H.,Zhejiang University | Qi X.-H.,Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth | And 4 more authors.

Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker and cytological analyses were employed to evaluate the genetic relationships and diversity of Chinese snakegourd. According to the cytological analyses, accessions 1, 2 and 3 were diploid (2n = 22), and accessions 4 to 12 were octaploid (2n = 88). Fourteen AFLP primer combinations generated a total of 645 reproducible loci among 12 Chinese snakegourd accessions studied, of which 628 loci were polymorphic with an average of 44.9 polymorphic bands per primer combination. Genetic similarities were obtained using Nei and Li similarity coefficients, and a dendrogram reflecting the relationship of 12 accessions was made using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) clustering method. Based on the cluster analyses, 12 accessions were classified into two primary groups, in which group one included accessions 1, 2 and 3 that were diploid, and the other nine octaploid accessions formed group two. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed much greater variation among groups than within them. Meanwhile, some genotypes that might have great medicinal potential were also proposed according to their genetic relationships. These results provide exact evaluation of the relationships among Trichosanthes kirilowii accessions and give useful information for further investigation and utilization of this species. © 2012 Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Università di Firenze. Source

Yang J.,Zhejiang University | Yang J.,Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth | Liu X.,Zhejiang University | Liu X.,Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth | And 4 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology

Background: The novel chimeric open reading frame (orf) resulting from the rearrangement of a mitochondrial genome is generally thought to be a causal factor in the occurrence of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). Both positive and negative correlations have been found between CMS-associated orfs and the occurrence of CMS when CMS-associated orfs were expressed and targeted at mitochondria. Some orfs cause male sterility or semi-sterility, while some do not. Little is currently known about how mitochondrial factor regulates the expression of the nuclear genes involved in male sterility. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological function of a candidate CMS-associated orf220 gene, newly isolated from cytoplasmic male-sterile stem mustard, and show how mitochondrial retrograde regulated nuclear gene expression is related to male sterility.Results: It was shown that the ORF220 protein can be guided to the mitochondria using the mitochondrial-targeting sequence of the β subunit of F1-ATPase (atp2-1). Transgenic stem mustard plants expressed the chimeric gene containing the orf220 gene and a mitochondrial-targeting sequence of the β subunit of F1-ATPase (atp2-1). Transgenic plants were male-sterile, most being unable to produce pollen while some could only produce non-vigorous pollen. The transgenic stem mustard plants also showed aberrant floral development identical to that observed in the CMS stem mustard phenotype. Results obtained from oligooarray analysis showed that some genes related to mitochondrial energy metabolism were down-regulated, indicating a weakening of mitochondrial function in transgenic stem mustard. Some genes related to pollen development were shown to be down-regulated in transgenic stem mustard and the expression of some transcription factor genes was also altered.Conclusion: The work presented furthers our understanding of how the mitochondrially-targeted expression of CMS-associated orf220 gene causes male sterility through retrograde regulation of nuclear gene expression in Brassica juncea. © 2010 Yang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Meng X.,Zhejiang University | Meng X.,Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth | Liu N.,Zhejiang University | Liu N.,Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Plant Nutrition

In this study, seven watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) cultivars were tested in solution culture experiment with limiting and ample phosphorus (P) supply to evaluate P uptake and utilization of watermelon under low P stress. Different genotypes showed considerable diversity in terms of biomass accumulation, P uptake, P utilization, root morphological parameters and photosynthetic parameters under low P stress. At low P supply, genotype XN8 and ZCHY were clearly superior to other genotypes in terms of total dry matter yield. The genotype ZJ has the highest P uptake ability, while the genotype XN8 has the highest P efficiency ratio and P utilization efficiency among the seven genotypes under low P stress. The P uptake ability of these genotypes was related significantly and positively to root morphological parameters and photosynthesis parameters under low P stress, the P utilization efficiency showed significant and positive correlation with total dry matter. Results showed existence of genetic differences among watermelon genotypes with regard to P absorption and utilization. The seven genotypes were classified into four groups: efficient responsive (ER), inefficient responsive (IER), efficient non-responsive (ENR) and inefficient nonresponsive (IENR) according to P utilization efficiency under low P stress and dry matter at high P supply. XN8 was identified as ER, and ZCHY was identified as ENR, which may be valuable resources for watermelon production in different soil with low P stress. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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