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Azambuja A.P.,Laboratory of Genetics and Molecular Cardiology | Azambuja A.P.,Heart Institute | Portillo-Sanchez V.,University of Malaga | Rodrigues M.V.,Laboratory of Genetics and Molecular Cardiology | And 7 more authors.
Circulation Research | Year: 2010

Rationale: Major coronary vessels derive from the proepicardium, the cellular progenitor of the epicardium, coronary endothelium, and coronary smooth muscle cells (CoSMCs). CoSMCs are delayed in their differentiation relative to coronary endothelial cells (CoEs), such that CoSMCs mature only after CoEs have assembled into tubes. The mechanisms underlying this sequential CoE/CoSMC differentiation are unknown. Retinoic acid (RA) is crucial for vascular development and the main RA-synthesizing enzyme is progressively lost from epicardially derived cells as they differentiate into blood vessel types. In parallel, myocardial vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression also decreases along coronary vessel muscularization. Objective: We hypothesized that RA and VEGF act coordinately as physiological brakes to CoSMC differentiation. Methods and results: In vitro assays (proepicardial cultures, cocultures, and RALDH2 [retinaldehyde dehydrogenase-2]/VEGF adenoviral overexpression) and in vivo inhibition of RA synthesis show that RA and VEGF act as repressors of CoSMC differentiation, whereas VEGF biases epicardially derived cell differentiation toward the endothelial phenotype. CONCLUSION: Experiments support a model in which early high levels of RA and VEGF prevent CoSMC differentiation from epicardially derived cells before RA and VEGF levels decline as an extensive endothelial network is established. We suggest this physiological delay guarantees the formation of a complex, hierarchical, tree of coronary vessels. © 2010 American Heart Association, Inc.


De Paula L.K.G.,University of Sao Paulo | Alvim R.O.,Laboratory of Genetics and Molecular Cardiology | Pedrosa R.P.,University of Sao Paulo | Pedrosa R.P.,Hospital Metropolitano sul Dom Helder Camara IMIP Hospitalar | And 5 more authors.
Chest | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: OSA has a familial aggregation pattern indicating that it can be partially caused by a genetic component. However, the heritability of OSA has been estimated based on the study of families of obese probands of urban populations with established OSA diagnosis. The objective of this genetic-epidemiologic study is to study families ascertained from a general rural population to determine an unbiased estimate of OSA heritability. METHODS: We studied a sample of families living in Baependi, a small rural southeastern Brazilian city. Participants were assessed for anthropometric measurements, physical examination, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, blood samples for glucose and cholesterol determination, and overnight home portable monitoring. RESULTS: We studied 587 participants (399 women) from 91 families, with a median (interquartile range [IQR]) of 4 (2-8) participants per family. The median age of the population was 44 years (IQR, 29-55 years) and median BMI was 25.0 kg/m2 (IQR, 22.1-28.6 kg/m2). OSA, defined by apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 5/h, was diagnosed in 18.6% of the sample. Two polygenic models, model I (no covariate effects) and model II (with covariate effects), were fitted to the data in all analyses. Heritability estimates for AHI were 0.23 and 0.25 for model I and II, respectively. Covariates (age, sex, and BMI) showed no significant effects on the heritability estimate for AHI. CONCLUSIONS: The heritability of AHI in a rural population with low levels of obesity is intermediate (25%). Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Silva M.S.M.,Laboratory of Genetics and Molecular Cardiology | Silva M.S.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Bolani W.,Laboratory of Genetics and Molecular Cardiology | Bolani W.,University of Sao Paulo | And 22 more authors.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance | Year: 2015

Aim: To study the relationship between the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and oxygen uptake (VO2) before and after exercise training. Methods: Police recruits (N = 206, 25 ± 4 y) with RR (n = 75), RX (n = 97), and XX (n = 33) genotypes were selected. After baseline measures, they underwent 18 wk of running endurance training. Peak VO2 was obtained by cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Results: Baseline body weight was not different among genotypes. At baseline, XX individuals displayed higher VO2 at anaerobic threshold, respiratory compensation point, and exercise peak than did RR individuals (P < .003). Endurance training significantly increased VO2 at anaerobic threshold, respiratory compensation point, and exercise peak (P < 2-10-6), but the differences between XX and RR were no longer observed. Only relative peak VO2 exercise remained higher in XX than in RR genotype (P = .04). In contrast, the increase in relative peak VO2 was greater in RR than in XX individuals (12% vs 6%; P = .02). Conclusion: ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is associated with VO2. XX individuals have greater aerobic capacity. Endurance training eliminates differences in peak VO2 between XX and RR individuals. These findings suggest a ceiling-effect phenomenon, and, perhaps, trained individuals may not constitute an adequate population to explain associations between phenotypic variability and gene variations. © 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.

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