Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment

Beijing, China

Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment

Beijing, China
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Niu X.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Niu X.,Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment | Niu X.,Beijing Collaborative Innovation Center for Eco Environmental Improvement with Forestry and Fruit Trees | Wang B.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | And 4 more authors.
Polish Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2017

The haze satellite map produced by NASA in 2013 showed a “Gray Great Wall” in the sky from Beijing to Hong Kong, indicating serious air pollution in China. The air pollutants and greenhouse gases can be reduced through engineering measures known as industrial gas emission and haze reduction (GGE&H reduction), as well as through green GGE&H reduction by ecosystems such as forests and wetlands that play significant roles in carbon sequestration and atmospheric environmental purification of air, soil, and water. Compared with the industrial GGE&H reduction, the green GGE&H reduction is lower in investment and operational cost, but offers more ecological benefits and therefore is more economically feasible. In this review the roles of green GGE&H reduction are summarized and its future potential is highlighted. The possible approaches to enhance the capability of green GGE&H reduction in China are discussed. © 2017, HARD Publishing Company. All rights reserved.


Hu Z.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Hu Z.,Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment | Hu Z.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu S.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | And 4 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2012

Both soil temperature and soil water condition are important factors that influencing soil respiration at different temporal scales. There is still intra and inter-seasonal variations in soil temperature and soil water content although they are seasonally correlated. In this study, a field experiment was carried out to explore effects of diurnal variations in soil temperature and soil water on soil respirations (Rs) in the alpine meadows in Balang Mountain in West Sichuan of China. The objectives of our study are to: 1) understand the seasonal pattern of day- and night-time Rs, in particular, nocturnal variations of Rs, 2) elucidate the partitioning pattern of day- and night-time Rs, and 3) compare Q10 values of day- and night-time Rs. We examined both day- and night-time Rs by using LI-8100 Automated Soil CO2 Flux System on monthly basis from April to November, 2011. The effects of soil temperature and soil water on Rs of alpine meadow were analyzed based on field measurements of diurnal soil respiration. The results indicated that Rs showed large seasonal variations in day- and night-time during the measurements period, with a two-peak curve in the day-time and parabola curve at the night-time. During the measurements period (April to November), the means of Rs in the day- and night-time are 1. 83 μmol·m-2· s-1 and 1. 61μmol· m-2· s-1, respectively. The means of daytime and nighttime Rs were significantly higher in growing seasons (Jun to September) than that in green up period (April to May) and withering period (October to November) which accounted largest contribution to annual soil respiration. The nocturnal soil respiration appeared to have similar tendency of variations among measurements, and it was relatively low at night-time, with the lowest between 06:30 and 07: 00am. During the measurement period, Van't Hoff equation and Lloyd & Taylor function were the same to be used for describing the relationships between soil respiration and soil temperature. The two-factor equations (soil temperature and moisture content) were much better to describe responses of nocturnal soil respiration compared to the single-factor equations. Soil respiration rates in the day-time and night-time exhibited a significantly exponential correlation with soil temperature during green up period, growing season and weathering periods, while the linear positive relationships between soil respiration and soil water content were found for nocturnal respiration in green up period and for both day-time and nocturnal respirations in weathering period. Q10 values were estimated to be 3. 90 and 3. 74 for the day-time and night-time respirations respectively, during the whole measurement period. Soil Q10 values varied with season, but daytime soil respiration during the green up period was most sensitive to temperature, and the nocturnal soil respiration during the peak months of growing seasons was least sensitive to temperature. Our results demonstrated that soil temperature, soil water, and their interactive effects had distinct effects on soil respiration of either the day-time or night-time during the measurements period in the subalpine meadow. Therefore, more measurements of the soil nocturnal CO2 efflux are essential to accurately estimate the seasonal and annual carbon fluxes based on instantaneous measurements of soil respiration. At the same time, soil temperature, soil water and other biotic factors affecting soil respiration should be taken into account.


Slik J.W.F.,CAS Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden | Paoli G.,Daemeter Consulting | Mcguire K.,Barnard College | Barroso J.,Federal University of Acre | And 58 more authors.
Global Ecology and Biogeography | Year: 2013

Aim: Large trees (d.b.h.≥70cm) store large amounts of biomass. Several studies suggest that large trees may be vulnerable to changing climate, potentially leading to declining forest biomass storage. Here we determine the importance of large trees for tropical forest biomass storage and explore which intrinsic (species trait) and extrinsic (environment) variables are associated with the density of large trees and forest biomass at continental and pan-tropical scales. Location: Pan-tropical. Methods: Aboveground biomass (AGB) was calculated for 120 intact lowland moist forest locations. Linear regression was used to calculate variation in AGB explained by the density of large trees. Akaike information criterion weights (AICc-wi) were used to calculate averaged correlation coefficients for all possible multiple regression models between AGB/density of large trees and environmental and species trait variables correcting for spatial autocorrelation. Results: Density of large trees explained c. 70% of the variation in pan-tropical AGB and was also responsible for significantly lower AGB in Neotropical [287.8 (mean)±105.0 (SD) Mg ha-1] versus Palaeotropical forests (Africa 418.3±91.8 Mg ha-1; Asia 393.3±109.3 Mg ha-1). Pan-tropical variation in density of large trees and AGB was associated with soil coarseness (negative), soil fertility (positive), community wood density (positive) and dominance of wind dispersed species (positive), temperature in the coldest month (negative), temperature in the warmest month (negative) and rainfall in the wettest month (positive), but results were not always consistent among continents. Main conclusions: Density of large trees and AGB were significantly associated with climatic variables, indicating that climate change will affect tropical forest biomass storage. Species trait composition will interact with these future biomass changes as they are also affected by a warmer climate. Given the importance of large trees for variation in AGB across the tropics, and their sensitivity to climate change, we emphasize the need for in-depth analyses of the community dynamics of large trees. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Luan J.,Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment | Luan J.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Liu S.,Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment | Liu S.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | And 4 more authors.
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Plot trenching and root decomposition experiments were conducted in a warm-temperate oak chronosequence (40-year-old, 48-year-old, 80-year-old, and 143-year-old) in China. We partitioned total soil surface CO2 efflux (RS) into heterotrophic (RH) and rhizospheric (RR) components across the growing season of 2009. We found that the temporal variation of RR and RH can be well explained by soil temperature (T5) at 5 cm depth using exponential equations for all forests. However, RR of 40-year-old and 48-year-old forests peaked in September, while their T5 peaks occurred in August. RR of 80-year-old and 143-year-old forests showed a similar pattern to T5. The contribution of RR to RS (RC) of 40-year-old and 48-year-old forests presented a second peak in September. Seasonal variation of RR may be accounted for by the different successional stages. Cumulative RH and RR during the growing season varied with forest age. The estimated RH values for 40-year-old, 48-year-old, 80-year-old and 143-year-old forests averaged 431.72, 452.02, 484.62 and 678.93 g C m-2, respectively, while the corresponding values of RR averaged 191.94, 206.51, 321.13 and 153.03 g C m-2. The estimated RC increased from 30.78% in the 40-year-old forest to 39.85% in the 80-year-old forest and then declined to 18.39% in the 143-year-old forest. We found soil organic carbon (SOC), especially the light fraction organic carbon (LFOC), stock at 0-10 cm soil depth correlated well with RH. There was no significant relationship between RR and fine root biomass regardless of stand age. Measured apparent temperature sensitivity (Q10) of RH (3.93 ± 0.27) was significantly higher than that of RR (2.78 ± 0.73). Capillary porosity decreased as stand age increased and it was negatively correlated to cumulative RS. Our results emphasize the importance of partitioning soil respiration in evaluating the stand age effect on soil respiration and its significance to future model construction. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Lu R.C.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Lu R.C.,Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment | Lu R.C.,University of Shanghai for Science and Technology | Wang H.B.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | And 7 more authors.
Psyche | Year: 2012

Competition and cooperation between bark beetles, Tomicus yunnanensis Kirkendall and Faccoli and Tomicus minor (Hartig) (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) were examined when they coexisted together in living Yunnan pine trees (Pinus yunnanensis Franchet) in Yunnan province in Southwest China. T. yunnanensis bark beetles were observed to initiate dispersal from pine shoots to trunks in November, while the majority of T. minor begins to transfer in December. T. yunnanensis mainly attacks the top and middle parts of the trunk, whereas T. minor mainly resides in the lower and middle parts of the trunk. The patterns of attack densities of these two species were similar, but with T. yunnanensis colonizing the upper section of the trunk and T. minor the lower trunk. The highest attack density of T. Yunnanensis was 297 egg galleries/m 2, and the highest attack density of T. minor was 305 egg galleries/m 2. Although there was significant overlap for the same bark areas, the two species generally colonize different areas of the tree, which reduces the intensity of competition for the relatively thin layer of phloem-cambium tissues where the beetles feed and reside. Copyright © 2012 Rong Chun Lu et al.


Zhang C.L.,Guangxi University | Yao B.,Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment | Zhang P.,Guangxi University | Wang T.T.,Guangxi University
Journal of Residuals Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Investigation involved soil microbial biomass carbon contents (SMBC) and dissipation of metsulfuron-methyl (MSM) in paddy soils. Results suggested organic amendments enhanced SMBC and MSM dissipation. The largest increment of SMBC was observed in treatments of decomposed pig manure (DM), followed by addition of Chinese Clover (CC) and then rice straw (RS). The shortest dissipation half-life of MSM resulted from a paddy field quaternary red clay (PRC), followed by a blue clay paddy soil (BCP) and a desalting muddy polder soil (PMP). This indicates organic materials not only effect microbial activity but also they effect fractions of extractable MSM all having an impact on MSM dissipation. © 2011 DEStech Publications, Inc.


Cheng R.,Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment | Wang R.,Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment | Xiao W.,Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment | Feng X.,Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment | And 4 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2012

Roots play an important role in individual plant carbon budgets and ecosystem-level carbon and nutrient cycling. Considerable research has concentrated on the vertical distribution and seasonal dynamics of fine root biomass. However, the spatial distribution of root biomass has been poorly studied. Our objectives are to determine how fine root biomass changes with horizontal distance, and to examine the spatial distribution of fine root biomass in stands of different ages. The horizontal and vertical distribution of root (0-10mm diameter) biomass for three Pinus massoniana plantations of different ages, 20, 30 and 46 year-old, in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, Hubei Province, China, was studied. Ten cm diameter soil cores were collected in July, 2010 at different horizontal distances (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2. 0m) from the stem. Each soil core was separated into five sections at depths of 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40 and 40-60 cm. Roots (0- 10mm) were first separated into living and dead roots. Then both categories were classified into two diameter classes, that was, two groups for fine roots (0-1mm and 1-2mm), and two groups for coarse roots (2-5mm and 5-10mm). Roots were dried at 80T! to a constant mass and weighed. Our results indicated the average fine root biomass of P. massoniana in the Three Gorges Reservoir area was 0. 56 t/hm 2, which is within the range of worldwide fine root biomass (<2-5mm diameter), but lower than the average fine root biomass of subtropical evergreen needleleaf forest. The total root biomass (≤ 10mm diameter) for P. massoniana forest for the 20, 30 and 46 year-old stands was 2. 40, 4. 72 t/hm 2, and 2. 94 t/hm 2, respectively, and differences between them were statistically significant (P<0.05). However, the fine root biomass (0-2mm diameter) declined insignificantly with an increase in forest age (P>0. 05). In all three stands, living root biomass was much higher than dead root biomass. Fine root biomass in all the stands peaked at 1.0 m from the stem, but fine root biomass in stands of different ages changed differently as the horizontal distance increased. Fine root biomass was mainly concentrated in the upper soil layer and decreased as soil depth increased. For all ages of stands, 47. 53% -71.73% of living roots were observed in the 0-20cm soil layer. The majority of coarse roots (2-10mm diameter) were at a depth of 20-60cm. We concluded smaller roots were more sensitive to environmental change than larger roots, based on an analysis of the interactions between the spatial distribution of fine root biomass and soil depth, distance from stem and stand age. Spatial distribution of fine root biomass was very significantly influenced by soil depth (P<0. 01), but effects of stand age and horizontal distance from the tree stem were not significant (P>0.05). Also, all these factors had no significant influence on the spatial distribution of coarse root biomass (P>0.05). The results indicate more consideration should be given to research on the spatial distribution of roots and the effects of these integrated factors on root distribution.


Feng X.,Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment | Cheng R.,Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment | Xiao W.,Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment | Wang R.,Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment | And 2 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2012

Tree rings provide a record of radial growth throughout a tree′s life, so much information can be obtained from tree rings. Many studies have been undertaken to study the relationship between tree rings and monthly temperature, but few have focused on the relationship with daily temperature. Although the phenology of stem xylem development and temperature are closely related, many studies indicate that threshold temperatures determine the beginning of cambial activity in spring, but few have attempted to explore the temperatures impacting on radial growth from tree rings. Radial growth of Huashan pine on the Huashan peaks was sensitive to climate change and was mainly limited by water supply in early summer and temperature in spring. In addition, thermal conditions were also a limited factor at this high-altitude site. In this study, tree ring chronology of Huashan pine and climate data recorded at a nearby weather station were used to investigate the relationship between radial growth of Huashan pine and daily mean temperature. The onset date, end date, duration and the cumulative temperature from different initial temperatures were calculated. Correlations between the changes in daily mean temperature over 36 years and the ring width, early-wood width, late-wood width, minimum density and maximum density were analyzed. The onset date of a specific temperature in spring significantly impacted the radial growth of Huashan pine. The onset date and duration of 3 °C and 8 °C were significantly negatively correlated with ring width, which indicated that the earlier onset date would promote growth in ring width. Early-wood width was sensitive to the onset date of 3 °C, while late-wood width was more sensitive to the onset date of 8 °C. However, temperatures higher than 11 °C limited the ring width both of early-wood and late-wood, and the most obvious temperature was 11 °C. The end date of 10 °C and lower temperatures were little related to ring width. The duration of 3 °C and 8 °C were also significantly positively associated with ring width. Ring density and width responded similarly to changing temperature. These results indicated 3 °C was the threshold temperature for early-wood formation in spring, 8 °C was critical for formation of late wood, but daily temperatures higher than 11 °C may cause water stress, which negatively affected radial growth. Collectively, the results indicated the tree ring chronology of Huashan pine contained abundant climate information, and that threshold temperatures determined the growth of Huashan pine xylem and cambial activity. By analyzing the relationship between growth phases at different temperatures and ring characteristics, the critical temperatures influencing radial growth of Huashan pine could be identified. Though the physiological processes corresponding to the critical temperature were unclear, this study provided useful information for understanding the tree growth response to rising temperature and historical climate reconstruction.


Ge X.,Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment | Xiao W.,Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment | Zeng L.,Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment | Huang Z.,Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment | And 2 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2012

The quality and quantity of litter and its decomposition rate represent, to some extent, the nutritional status of the soil. In order to accurately estimate the contribution of litter decomposition to the annual net return of soil carbon pool and understand the biochemistry of litter-soil continuum, the relationships between litter substrate quality and soil nutrients were studied for different-aged Pinus massoniana stands. The results showed that C, C/N ratio, C/P ratio, lignin/N ratio, lignin/P ratio of litter substrate collected from three different-aged P. massoniana stands were significantly different. The lignin/ N ratio of leaf litter in nearly-mature P. massoniana stand was 33.65% and 39.24% higher than that in middle- aged and mature stands, respectively. However, N, P, K and lignin contents of litter substrate did not differ among the different-aged stands. The contents of N, P, and K varied with tissue types showing barkbranches>leaf>debris. The contents of organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus in 0-20 cm soil layer tended to increase from the nearly-mature, to the middle-aged, and mature stands and to decrease from 0-5 cm soil layer, to 5-10 cm, and 10-20 cm soil layer. The total phosphorus was lowest in the middle-aged stands and largest in the mature stand. The soil pH value varied from 4.55-5.55 showing middle-aged stand

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