Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Biochemistry

Laboratory of, United States

Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Biochemistry

Laboratory of, United States
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Quraishi U.M.,University Blaise Pascal | Murat F.,University Blaise Pascal | Abrouk M.,University Blaise Pascal | Pont C.,University Blaise Pascal | And 15 more authors.
Functional and Integrative Genomics | Year: 2011

Grain dietary fiber content in wheat not only affects its end use and technological properties including milling, baking and animal feed but is also of great importance for health benefits. In this study, integration of association genetics (seven detected loci on chromosomes 1B, 3A, 3D, 5B, 6B, 7A, 7B) and meta-QTL (three consensus QTL on chromosomes 1B, 3D and 6B) analyses allowed the identification of seven chromosomal regions underlying grain dietary fiber content in bread wheat. Based either on a diversity panel or on bi-parental populations, we clearly demonstrate that this trait is mainly driven by a major locus located on chromosome 1B associated with a log of p value >13 and a LOD score >8, respectively. In parallel, we identified 73 genes differentially expressed during the grain development and between genotypes with contrasting grain fiber contents. Integration of quantitative genetics and transcriptomic data allowed us to propose a short list of candidate genes that are conserved in the rice, sorghum and Brachypodium chromosome regions orthologous to the seven wheat grain fiber content QTL and that can be considered as major candidate genes for future improvement of the grain dietary fiber content in bread wheat breeding programs. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Irakli M.N.,Cereal Institute | Samanidou V.F.,Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry | Katsantonis D.N.,Cereal Institute | Biliaderis C.G.,Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Biochemistry | Papadoyannis I.N.,Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry
Cereal Research Communications | Year: 2016

Pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes become increasingly important in the agroindustry due to their bioavailable compounds that have the ability to inhibit the formation and/or to reduce the effective concentration of reactive cell-damaging free radicals. This study aimed at determining the concentrations of free, and bound phytochemicals and their antioxidant potential (DPPH and ABTS assays) as well as the vitamin E and carotenoids contents of non-pigmented and pigmented rice genotypes. The results confirmed that the content of total phenolics and flavonoids contents, as well as the antioxidant capacity (DPPH and ABTS assays) of pigmented rice was several-fold greater than non-pigmented ones (4, 4, 3 and 5 times, respectively). Compounds in the free fraction of pigmented rice had higher antioxidant capacity relative to those in the bound form, whereas the non-pigmented rice cultivars exhibited the opposite trend. Ferulic acid was the main phenolic acid of all rice genotypes, whereas black rice contained protocatechuic and vanillic acids in higher contents than red rice and non-pigmented rice genotypes. For vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols) and carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene) contents, no obvious concentration differences were observed between non-pigmented and pigmented rice, with the black rice exhibiting the highest carotenoid content. Overall, pigmented rice genotypes contain a remarkable amount of bioactive compounds with high antioxidant capacity; therefore, they have great potential as a source of bioactives for developing functional food products with improved health benefits. © 2016 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.

Skendi A.,Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Biochemistry | Papageorgiou M.,Cereal Institute | Biliaderis C.G.,Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Biochemistry
Food Research International | Year: 2010

The effects of the addition of two barley β-glucan isolates (0.2-1.0% of wheat flour), differing in molecular weight, and water (53-63% in a poor breadmaking wheat flour, cv. Dion, and 58-68% in a good breadmaking wheat flour, cv. Yekora) on the viscoelastic properties of wheat flour doughs were investigated. A response surface model (CCF) was used to evaluate the effects observed on the dynamic and creep-recovery parameters of the dough. The evaluation was done separately for each combination of β-glucan isolate (BG1 of ∼105 Da and BG2 of ∼2 × 105 Da) and flour type. Besides the contents of β-glucan and water, the molecular size of the polysaccharide and the flour quality were important determinants of the dough's viscoelastic behavior. Compared to BG1, the higher molecular weight β-glucan (BG2) brought about major changes on all the rheological responses of the fortified doughs. The addition of appropriate levels of β-glucans and water in the poor breadmaking cultivar (Dion) doughs could yield similar viscoelastic responses to those observed by a non-fortified good breadmaking quality flour dough (Yekora). © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Skendi A.,Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Biochemistry | Biliaderis C.G.,Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Biochemistry | Papageorgiou M.,Cereal Institute | Izydorczyk M.S.,Grain Research Laboratory
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

The effects of wheat flour fortification with two different molecular weight barley β-glucan isolates (1.00 × 105, BG-100 and 2.03 × 105, BG-200) on the rheological properties of dough and bread characteristics, using flours from two wheat cultivars that differ in their breadmaking quality, have been examined. The farinograph water absorption of doughs and the moisture content and water activity of the breads increased with increasing β-glucan content; the β-glucan isolate with the higher molecular weight (BG-200) exerted a greater effect than did BG-100. The addition of β-glucans to the dough formula increased the development time, the stability, the resistance to deformation and the extensibility of the poor breadmaking quality doughs, as well as the specific volumes of the respective breads, exceeding even that of the good breadmaking cultivar. Furthermore, the colour of the bread crumbs got darker and their structure became coarser, whereas the bread crumb firmness decreased with increasing level of β-glucan addition. Generally, the BG-200 was more effective in increasing the specific bread volume and reducing the crumb firmness, especially when used to fortify the poor breadmaking quality flour. The results further indicate a requirement for optimisation of the fortified doughs (level and molecular size of the β-glucan) to maximise bread quality attributes (loaf volume, texture, and staling events). © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

De Brier N.,Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Biochemistry | Gomand S.V.,Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Biochemistry | Donner E.,University of South Australia | Paterson D.,Australian Synchrotron | And 3 more authors.
Plant, Cell and Environment | Year: 2016

Several studies have suggested that the majority of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in wheat grains are associated with phytate, but a nuanced approach to unravel important tissue-level variation in element speciation within the grain is lacking. Here, we present spatially resolved Fe-speciation data obtained directly from different grain tissues using the newly developed synchrotron-based technique of X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy imaging, coupling this with high-definition μ-X-ray fluorescence microscopy to map the co-localization of essential elements. In the aleurone, phosphorus (P) is co-localized with Fe and Zn, and X-ray absorption near-edge structure imaging confirmed that Fe is chelated by phytate in this tissue layer. In the crease tissues, Zn is also positively related to P distribution, albeit less so than in the aleurone. Speciation analysis suggests that Fe is bound to nicotianamine rather than phytate in the nucellar projection, and that more complex Fe structures may also be present. In the embryo, high Zn concentrations are present in the root and shoot primordium, co-occurring with sulfur and presumably bound to thiol groups. Overall, Fe is mainly concentrated in the scutellum and co-localized with P. This high resolution imaging and speciation analysis reveals the complexity of the physiological processes responsible for element accumulation and bioaccessibility. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Zinoviadou K.G.,Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Biochemistry | Koutsoumanis K.P.,Laboratory of Food Microbiology and Hygiene | Biliaderis C.G.,Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Biochemistry
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2010

The effectiveness of antimicrobial films against beef's spoilage flora during storage at 5 °C and the impact of the antimicrobial agents on the mechanical and physical properties of the films were examined. Antimicrobial films were prepared by incorporating different levels of sodium lactate (NaL) and ε-polylysine (ε-PL) into sorbitol-plasticized whey protein isolate (WPI) films. The moisture uptake behavior and the water vapor permeability (WVP) were affected only by the addition of NaL at all concentrations used since an increased water uptake and permeability were observed with the addition of NaL into the protein matrix. An increase of the glass transition temperature (5-15 °C) of the sorbitol region, as determined by Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA), was caused by the addition of ε-PL into the WPI specimens. Instead, incorporation of NaL into the protein matrix did not alter its thermo-mechanical behavior. The addition of NaL at concentrations of 1.0% and 1.5% w/w in the film-forming solution resulted in a decline of maximum tensile strength (σmax) and Young modulus (E). A decrease of E and σmax, accompanied with an increase in elongation at break (%EB), was also observed with increasing ε-PL concentration, at moisture contents higher that 10% (w/w). The antimicrobial activity of the composite WPI films was tested on fresh beef cut portions. The maximum specific growth rate (μmax) of total flora (total viable count, TVC) was significantly reduced with the use of antimicrobial films made from 0.75% w/w ε-PL in film-forming solutions (p < 0.05), while the growth of Lactic Acid Bacteria was completely inhibited. Significant inhibition of growth of the total flora and pseudomonads was also observed with the use of films made with protein solutions containing 2.0% w/w NaL. These results pointed to the effectiveness of the antimicrobial whey protein films to extend the shelf life of fresh beef. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Doblado-Maldonado A.F.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Doblado-Maldonado A.F.,Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Biochemistry | Flores R.A.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Rose D.J.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to produce wholegrain wheat flour on a laboratory-scale with particle size distributions similar to commercially-milled samples without re-milling the bran. The moisture contents of four hard winter wheat cultivars were adjusted to 7.29-7.98% (by drying), 9.00-10.6% ("as is"), and 15.6% (by tempering) prior to milling into wholegrain flour. The moisture treatments appeared to affect the partitioning of wholegrain flour particles into each of three categories: fine (<600μm), medium (600-849μm) and coarse (≥850μm). When the distributions of particles were grouped into these categories, wholegrain flours made from dried and "as is" wheat fell within the values for commercial wholegrain flours, while that from tempered wheat contained more coarse particles than even the coarsest commercial wholegrain flour. Loaf volumes and crumb firmness were not significantly different between bread made from wholegrain flour that had been produced from dried or "as is" wheat, but loaf volume was significantly lower and bread crumb firmness was significantly higher when wholegrain flour from tempered wheat was used. These results show that wheat may be milled without tempering to produce wholegrain flour with particle size similar to some commercially-milled flours without needing to re-grind the bran. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Verspreet J.,Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Biochemistry | Verspreet J.,Leuven Food Science and Nutrition Research Center oe | Verspreet J.,Catholic University of Leuven | Damen B.,Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Biochemistry | And 11 more authors.
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2016

This article reviews the current knowledge of the health effects of dietary fiber and prebiotics and establishes the position of prebiotics within the broader context of dietary fiber. Although the positive health effects of specific fibers on defecation, reduction of postprandial glycemic response, and maintenance of normal blood cholesterol levels are generally accepted, other presumed health benefits of dietary fibers are still debated. There is evidence that specific dietary fibers improve the integrity of the epithelial layer of the intestines, increase the resistance against pathogenic colonization, reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer, increase mineral absorption, and have a positive impact on the immune system, but these effects are neither generally acknowledged nor completely understood. Many of the latter effects are thought to be particularly elicited by prebiotics. Although the prebiotic concept evolved significantly during the past two decades, the line between prebiotics and nonprebiotic dietary fiber remains vague. Nevertheless, scientific evidence demonstrating the health-promoting potential of prebiotics continues to accumulate and suggests that prebiotic fibers have their rightful place in a healthy diet. Copyright © 2016 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Langstraat T.D.,Catholic University of Leuven | Jansens K.J.A.,Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Biochemistry | Delcour J.A.,Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Biochemistry | Delcour J.A.,Catholic University of Leuven | And 2 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2015

The high temperature blending of wheat gluten with other polymers for the manufacturing of bioplastics is associated with heat induced cross-linking reactions which can increase the viscosity and affect component miscibility. This work showed that a good level of control over the onset of cross-linking can be obtained during heating by adjusting the pH of the environment. Gluten was heated (>100. °C) in buffer solutions of different pH and protein polymerisation was monitored by various methods to assess the extent and nature of aggregation. In a sufficiently acidic environment (pH 2.5-3.0) during heating up to 153. °C, cross-linking was greatly hindered whilst protein degradation was not observed, provided 15. min heating time was not exceeded. Such conditions may well be suited to blend gluten with other polymers at relatively high temperatures in aqueous solvent. When hydrothermally treated gluten samples with large differences in protein cross-linking were compression moulded to produce plastic specimens, little differences in mechanical properties were observed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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