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Fang K.,Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textiles | Fang K.,Qingdao University | Fang K.,Collaborative Innovation Center for Marine Biomass Fibers | Liu Y.,Qingdao University | And 8 more authors.
Fibers and Polymers | Year: 2015

Cationic copolymer nanospheres are important functional materials, for example, for fiber modification. Here, emulsifier-free ternary emulsion copolymerizations of styrene (St) and butyl acrylate (BA) with two different quaternary ammonium cationic monomers (QACMs), methacryloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (DMC) and trimethyl (vinylbenzyl) ammonium chloride (VBT), and 2,2’-azobis[2-methylpropionamidine] dihydrochloride (AIBA) as an initiator were conducted at 80 ×C, under agitation at 300 rpm. The differences between the two cationic comonomers strongly influenced the monomer conversion, diameter, morphology, and surface charge density of the nanospheres. In particular, a higher cationic comonomer content is found to produce more oligomer radicals and thus more primary particles in the polymerization process, which leads to higher monomer conversion, smaller particle diameter, and increased surface charge density. The cationic nanospheres could be adsorbed in either a monolayer or in multiple layers on the oppositely charged cotton fiber because of their fierce electrostatic attraction. Compared with poly(St-BA-VBT) nanospheres, the distribution of poly(St-BA-DMC) nanospheres was more nonuniform on fiber surfaces accompanied by agglomerates. © 2015, The Korean Fiber Society and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Fang K.,Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textiles | Fang K.,Qingdao University | Ren B.,Qingdao University
Dyes and Pigments | Year: 2014

Colored nanospheres are widely used in paints, inks, food, electronic displays, textiles, and medicine. In the present study, we describe an emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization process for the synthesis of poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) nanospheres, such that the influence of surfactants is eliminated. The obtained nanosphere dispersions were mixed with three commercial disperse dye solutions. After heat treatment, pure and brightly colored nanosphere powders were obtained by a simple purification procedure. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that the average particle size of the nanospheres increased by 23 nm after coloration, and differential scanning calorimetry revealed a decrease of 2.98 C in the glass transition temperature. The amounts of dyes fixed within the nanospheres depended on the dye concentration of solution. The three different dyes were incorporated to varying levels, corresponding to their ability to form hydrogen bonds with the polymer nanospheres. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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