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Buenos Aires, Argentina

Giani J.F.,Cedars Sinai Medical Center | Janjulia T.,Cedars Sinai Medical Center | Kamat N.,University of Southern California | Seth D.M.,Tulane University | And 9 more authors.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2014

The kidney is an important source of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in many species, including humans. However, the specific effects of local ACE on renal function and, by extension, BP control are not completely understood. We previously showed that mice lacking renal ACE, are resistant to the hypertension induced by angiotensin II infusion. Here, we examined the responses of these mice to the low-systemic angiotensin II hypertensive model of nitric oxide synthesis inhibition with L-NAME. In contrast to wild-type mice, mice without renal ACE did not develop hypertension, had lower renal angiotensin II levels, and enhanced natriuresis in response to L-NAME. During L-NAME treatment, the absence of renal ACE was associated with blunted GFR responses; greater reductions in abundance of proximal tubule Na+/H+ exchanger 3, Na+/Pi co-transporter 2, phosphorylated Na+/K+/Cl- cotransporter, and phosphorylated Na+/Cl- cotransporter; and greater reductions in abundance and processing of the γ isoform of the epithelial Na+ channel. In summary, the presence of ACE in renal tissue facilitates angiotensin II accumulation, GFR reductions, and changes in the expression levels and post-translational modification of sodium transporters that are obligatory for sodium retention and hypertension in response to nitric oxide synthesis inhibition. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology. Source

Velloso L.A.,University of Campinas | Eizirik D.L.,Laboratory of Experimental Medicine | Cnop M.,Erasmus University College Brussels
Nature Reviews Endocrinology | Year: 2013

Inflammation-induced inhibition of the insulin signalling pathway can lead to insulin resistance and contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with a chronic but subclinical inflammatory process that impairs insulin action in most tissues and could also hamper pancreatic β-cell function. The involvement of monocytic cells and the profiles of the chemokines and cytokines induced by this inflammation suggest an innate immune response. However, emerging data indicate that elements of the adaptive immune system could also be involved. As activation of an adaptive response requires antigen specificity, some researchers have hypothesized that T2DM evolves from an innate immune response to an autoimmune condition. In this Perspectives article, we present the arguments for and against this hypothesis and discuss which mechanisms could be involved in a putative switch from innate immunity to autoimmunity. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

Gal L.L.,University of Lausanne | Alonso F.,University of Lausanne | Wagner C.,University of Regensburg | Germain S.,College de France | And 4 more authors.
Hypertension | Year: 2014

Connexin 40 (Cx40) is expressed by the renin-producing cells (RSCs) of the kidneys and the endothelial cells of blood vessels. Cx40 null mice (Cx40 -/-) feature a much increased renin synthesis and secretion, which results in chronic hypertension, and also display an altered endothelium-dependent relaxation of the aorta because of reduced eNOS levels and nitric oxide production. To discriminate the effect of Cx40 in renin secretion and vascular signaling, we targeted Cx40 to either the RSCs or the endothelial cells of Cx40 null mice. When compared with Cx40-/- controls, the animals expressing Cx40 in RSCs were less hypertensive and featured reduced renin levels, still numerous RSCs outside the wall of the afferent arterioles. In contrast, mice expressing Cx40 in the endothelial cells were as hypertensive as Cx40-/- mice, in spite of control levels of Cx37 and eNOS. Our data show that blood pressure is improved by restoration of Cx40 expression in RSCs but not in endothelial cells, stressing the prominent role of renin in the mouse hypertension linked to loss of Cx40. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Eizirik D.L.,Laboratory of Experimental Medicine | Cnop M.,Laboratory of Experimental Medicine | Cnop M.,Erasmus University College Brussels
Cell Metabolism | Year: 2012

Pancreatic β cell failure is central in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Mahdi and colleagues (2012) couple global evaluation of gene expression with coexpression network analysis of human islets from T2D patients to identify SFRP4 as an early mediator of b cell dysfunction in T2D. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

Giani J.F.,University of Buenos Aires | Burghi V.,University of Buenos Aires | Veiras L.C.,University of Buenos Aires | Tomat A.,University of Buenos Aires | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology | Year: 2012

Angiotensin (ANG)-(1-7) is known to attenuate diabetic nephropathy; however, its role in the modulation of renal inflammation and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes is poorly understood. Thus in the present study we evaluated the renal effects of a chronic ANG-(1-7) treatment in Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF), an animal model of type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. Sixteen-week-old male ZDF and their respective controls [lean Zucker rats (LZR)] were used for this study. The protocol involved three groups: 1) LZR + saline, 2) ZDF + saline, and 3) ZDF + ANG-(1-7). For 2 wk, animals were implanted with subcutaneous osmotic pumps that delivered either saline or ANG-(1-7) (100 ng·kg-1·min-1) (n = 4). Renal fibrosis and tissue parameters of oxidative stress were determined. Also, renal levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), ED-1, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) were determined by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. ANG-(1-7) induced a reduction in triglyceridemia, proteinuria, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) together with a restoration of creatinine clearance in ZDF. Additionally, ANG-(1-7) reduced renal fibrosis, decreased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and restored the activity of both renal superoxide dismutase and catalase in ZDF. This attenuation of renal oxidative stress proceeded with decreased renal immunostaining of IL-6, TNF-α, ED-1, HIF-1α, and NGAL to values similar to those displayed by LZR. Angiotensin-converting enzyme type 2 (ACE2) and ANG II levels remained unchanged after treatment with ANG-(1-7). Chronic ANG-(1-7) treatment exerts a renoprotective effect in ZDF associated with a reduction of SBP, oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers. Thus ANG-(1-7) emerges as a novel target for treatment of diabetic nephropathy. © 2012 the American Physiological Society. Source

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