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Balestra G.M.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Mik E.G.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Eerbeek O.,Embryology and Physiology | Specht P.A.C.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | And 3 more authors.
Respiratory Research | Year: 2015

Background: The leading cause of mortality due to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is failure of the cardiac right ventricle. It has long been hypothesized that during the development of chronic cardiac failure the heart becomes energy deprived, possibly due to shortage of oxygen at the level of cardiomyocyte mitochondria. However, direct evaluation of oxygen tension levels within the in vivo right ventricle during PAH is currently lacking. Here we directly evaluated this hypothesis by using a recently reported technique of oxygen-dependent quenching of delayed fluorescence of mitochondrial protoprophyrin IX, to determine the distribution of mitochondrial oxygen tension (mitoPO2) within the right ventricle (RV) subjected to progressive PAH.Methods: PAH was induced through a single injection of monocrotaline (MCT). Control (saline-injected), compensated RV hypertrophy (30 mg/kg MCT; MCT30), and RV failure (60 mg/kg MCT; MCT60) rats were compared 4 wk after treatment. The distribution of mitoPO2 within the RV was determined in mechanically-ventilated, anaesthetized animals, applying different inspired oxygen (FiO2) levels and two increment dosages of dobutamine.Results: MCT60 resulted in RV failure (increased mortality, weight loss, increased lung weight), MCT30 resulted in compensated RV hypertrophy. At 30% or 40% FiO2, necessary to obtain physiological arterial PO2 in the diseased animals, RV failure rats had significantly less mitochondria (15% of total mitochondria) in the 0-20 mmHg mitoPO2 range than hypertrophied RV rats (48%) or control rats (54%). Only when oxygen supply was reduced to 21% FiO2, resulting in low arterial PO2 for the MCT60 animals, or when oxygen demand increased with high dose dobutamine, the number of failing RV mitochondria with low oxygen became similar to control RV. In addition, metabolic enzyme analysis revealed similar mitochondrial mass, increased glycolytic hexokinase activity following MCT, with increased lactate dehydrogenase activity only in compensated hypertrophied RV.Conclusions: Our novel observation of increased mitochondrial oxygenation suggests down-regulation of in vivo mitochondrial oxygen consumption, in the absence of hypoxia, with transition towards right ventricular failure induced by pulmonary arterial hypertension. © 2015 Balestra et al.; licensee BioMed Central. Source

Nederlof R.,Laboratory of Experimental Intensive Care and Anesthesiology | Xie C.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Koeman A.,Laboratory of Experimental Intensive Care and Anesthesiology | Hollmann M.W.,Laboratory of Experimental Intensive Care and Anesthesiology | And 4 more authors.
Circulation Research | Year: 2013

Rationale: We have shown that partial dissociation of hexokinase II (HKII) from mitochondria in the intact heart using low-dose transactivating transcriptional factor (TAT)-HKII (200 nmol/L) prevents the cardioprotective effects of ischemic preconditioning, whereas high-dose TAT-HKII (10 μmol/L) administration results in rapid myocardial dysfunction, mitochondrial depolarization, and disintegration. In this issue of Circulation Research, Pasdois et al argue that the deleterious effects of TAT-HKII administration on cardiac function are likely because of vasoconstriction and ensuing ischemia. Objective: To investigate whether altered vascular function and ensuing ischemia recapitulate the deleterious effects of TAT-HKII in intact myocardium. Methods and Results: Using a variety of complementary techniques, including mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) imaging, high-resolution optical action potential mapping, analysis of lactate production, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide epifluorescence, lactate dehydrogenase release, and electron microscopy, we provide direct evidence that refutes the notion that acute myocardial dysfunction by high-dose TAT-HKII peptide administration is a consequence of impaired vascular function. Moreover, we demonstrate that low-dose TAT-HKII treatment, which abrogates the protective effects of ischemic preconditioning, is not associated with ischemia or ischemic injury. Conclusions: Our findings challenge the notion that the effects of TAT-HKII are attributable to impaired vascular function and ensuing ischemia, thereby lending further credence to the role of mitochondria-bound HKII as a critical regulator of cardiac function, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and cardioprotection by ischemic preconditioning. © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Vlaar A.P.J.,Laboratory of Experimental Intensive Care and Anesthesiology | Hofstra J.J.,Laboratory of Experimental Intensive Care and Anesthesiology | Tool A.T.J.,Sanquin Blood Supply Foundation | Schultz M.J.,Laboratory of Experimental Intensive Care and Anesthesiology | And 2 more authors.
Anesthesiology | Year: 2010

Background: Transfusion of erythrocytes is associated with increased morbidity in certain patient groups. Storage time of erythrocytes may contribute to respiratory complications. Using a syngeneic in vivo transfusion model, we investigated whether transfusion of stored rat erythrocytes causes lung injury in healthy and in lipopolysaccharide-primed rats in a "two-hit" model of lung injury. Methods: Rats were infused with aged rat erythrocytes (14 days of storage) and washed aged erythrocytes or supernatant of aged erythrocytes. Controls received fresh rat erythrocytes (0 days of storage) or saline. In the "two-hit" model of lung injury, lipopolysaccharide was used as a "first hit" before transfusion. Rat and control human erythrocyte products were analyzed for lysophosphatidylcholine accumulation. Results: In healthy rats, transfusion of aged erythrocytes caused mild pulmonary inflammation but no coagulopathy. In lipopolysaccharide-pretreated rats, transfusion of aged erythrocytes augmented lung injury by inducing coagulopathy, both in the pulmonary and systemic compartment, when compared with transfusion with fresh erythrocytes. When transfused separately, supernatant of aged erythrocytes, but not washed aged erythrocytes, mediated coagulopathy in the "two-hit" model. Analysis of the supernatant of aged erythrocytes (rat and human) showed no lysophosphatidylcholine accumulation. Conclusions: Transfusion of aged erythrocytes induces lung injury in healthy rats. In a "two-hit" model, injury induced by aged erythrocytes was characterized by coagulopathy and was abrogated by washing. Washing of aged erythrocytes may decrease pulmonary complications in patients with an inflammatory condition who are exposed to a blood transfusion. Copyright © 2010, the American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

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