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PubMed | University of Padua, Laboratory of Experimental Immunopathology, University of Piemonte Orientale, University of Bari and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association | Year: 2016

Chronic T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) in kidney graft is characterized by reduction of the vessel lumen with marked intimal thickening, fibrous hyperplasia of the small renal arteries and leukocyte infiltrates. The aim of this study was to find specific gene expression profiles in chronic TCMR kidney biopsies.RNA extracted from archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded renal biopsies was used for gene expression profiling. Our study included 14 patients with chronic TCMR and 10 with acute TCMR. Fifty-two cadaveric donors were used as controls. The results were validated in an independent set of kidney biopsies.We identified 616 and 243 differentially expressed genes with a fold change 1.5 and a false discovery rate <0.05 in chronic and acute TCMR, respectively. Pathway analysis revealed upregulation of OX40 signalling. This pathway is involved in the generation of CD8These results suggest the involvement of memory-committed CD8


PubMed | University of Salerno, IRCCS de Bellis, Laboratory of Experimental Immunopathology, CNR Institute of Sciences of Food Production and University of Tasmania
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Oncotarget | Year: 2016

Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) that in response to microbial infections generate long-lasting adaptive immune response. Following microbial uptake, DCs undergo a cascade of cellular differentiation that ultimately leads to mature DCs. Mature DCs produce a variety of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor- (TNF) a key cytokine for the inflammatory cascade. In numerous studies, polyphenols, including quercetin, demonstrated their ability to suppress TNF secretion and protect from the onset of chronic inflammatory disorders. We show that murine bone marrow derived DCs express Slpi following quercetin exposure. Slpi is known to suppress LPS mediated NFB activation, thus, it was hypothesized that its expression could be the key step for polyphenol induced inflammatory suppression. Slpi-KO DCs poorly respond to quercetin administration failing to reduce TNF secretion in response to quercetin exposure. Supernatant from quercetin exposed DCs could also reduce LPS-mediated TNF secretion by unrelated DCs, but this property is lost using an anti-Slpi antibody. In vivo, oral administration of quercetin is able to induce Slpi expression. Human biopsies from inflamed tract of the intestine reveal the presence of numerous SLPI+ cells and the expression level could be further increased by quercetin administration. We propose that quercetin induces Slpi expression that in turn reduces the inflammatory response. Our data encourages the development of nutritional strategies to improve the efficiency of current therapies for intestinal chronic inflammatory syndrome and reduce the risks of colorectal cancer development.


PubMed | Laboratory of Experimental Immunopathology, R.Ø.S.A. and University of Bari
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of Cancer | Year: 2016

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for more than 2% of neoplasias in humans worldwide. Renal biopsy is the gold standard among the diagnostic procedures, but it is invasive and not suitable for all patients. Therefore, new reliable and non-invasive biomarkers for RCC are required. Secretion of extracellular vesicles (EVs), containing RNA molecules that can be transferred between cells, appears to be a common feature of neoplasia. Consistently, cancer-derived EVs are increased in blood and urine. Therefore, urinary samples may be a non-invasive approach for discovering new diagnostic biomarkers. We enrolled 46 patients of whom 33 with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and 22 healthy subjects (HS). Urinary EVs were isolated by differential centrifugation. Microarray analysis led to the identification of RNA molecules that were validated using RT-qPCR. We found that urinary exosomal shuttle RNA (esRNA) pattern was significantly different in ccRCC patients compared to HS and to non-clear cell RCC (non-ccRCC) and we identified three esRNAs involved in the tumor biology that may be potentially suitable as non-invasive gene signature.


PubMed | Laboratory of Experimental Immunopathology, University of Verona, University of Tasmania, Laboratory of Lipid Metabolism and Cancer and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: European journal of immunology | Year: 2015

Currently little is known as to how nutritionally derived compounds may affect dendritic cell (DC) maturation and potentially prevent inappropriate inflammatory responses that are characteristic of chronic inflammatory syndromes. Previous observations have demonstrated that two polyphenols quercetin and piperine delivered through reconstituted oil bodies (ROBs-QP) can influence DC maturation in response to LPS leading to a modulated inflammatory response. In the present study, we examined the molecular effects of ROBs-QP exposure on DC differentiation in mice and identified a unique molecular signature in response to LPS administration that potentially modulates DC maturation and activity in inflammatory conditions. Following LPS administration, ROBs-QP-exposed DCs expressed an altered molecular profile as compared with control DCs, including cytokine and chemokine production, chemokine receptor repertoire, and antigen presentation ability. In vivo ROBs-QP administration suppresses antigen-specific T-cell division in the draining lymph nodes resulting from a reduced ability to create stable immunological synapse. Our data demonstrate that polyphenols exposure can drive DCs toward a new anti-inflammatory molecular profile capable of dampening the inflammatory response, highlighting their potential as complementary nutritional approaches in the treatment of chronic inflammatory syndromes.


Cavalcanti E.,Laboratory of Experimental Immunopathology | Vadrucci E.,Laboratory of Experimental Immunopathology | Vadrucci E.,Laboratory of Mucosal Immunology | Delvecchio F.R.,Laboratory of Mucosal Immunology | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Polyphenols are natural compounds capable of interfering with the inflammatory pathways of several in vitro model systems. In this study, we developed a stable and effective strategy to administer polyphenols to treat in vivo models of acute intestinal inflammation. The in vitro suppressive properties of several polyphenols were first tested and compared for dendritic cells (DCs) production of inflammatory cytokines. A combination of the polyphenols, quercetin and piperine, were then encapsulated into reconstituted oil bodies (OBs) in order to increase their stability. Our results showed that administration of low dose reconstituted polyphenol OBs inhibited LPS-mediated inflammatory cytokine secretion, including IL-6, IL-23, and IL-12, while increasing IL-10 and IL-1Rα production. Mice treated with the polyphenol-containing reconstituted OBs (ROBs) were partially protected from dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis and associated weight loss, while mortality and inflammatory scores revealed an overall anti-inflammatory effect that was likely mediated by impaired DC immune responses. Our study indicates that the administration of reconstituted quercetin and piperine-containing OBs may represent an effective and potent anti-inflammatory strategy to treat acute intestinal inflammation. © 2014 Cavalcanti et al.


De Santis S.,Laboratory of Experimental Immunopathology | Cavalcanti E.,Laboratory of Experimental Immunopathology | Mastronardi M.,IRCCS De Bellis | Jirillo E.,University of Bari | And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2015

The intestinal tract represents the largest interface between the external environment and the human body. Nutrient uptake mostly happens in the intestinal tract, where the epithelial surface is constantly exposed to dietary antigens. Since inflammatory response toward these antigens may be deleterious for the host, a plethora of protective mechanisms take place to avoid or attenuate local damage. For instance, the intestinal barrier is able to elicit a dynamic response that either promotes or impairs luminal antigens adhesion and crossing. Regulation of intestinal barrier is crucial to control intestinal permeability whose increase is associated with chronic inflammatory conditions. The cross talk among bacteria, immune, and dietary factors is able to modulate the mucosal barrier function, as well as the intestinal permeability. Several nutritional products have recently been proposed as regulators of the epithelial barrier, even if their effects are in part contradictory. At the same time, the metabolic function of the microbiota generates new products with different effects based on the dietary content. Besides conventional treatments, novel therapies based on complementary nutrients are now growing. Fecal therapy has been recently used for the clinical treatment of refractory Clostridium difficile infection instead of the classical antibiotic therapy. In the present review, we will outline the epithelial response to nutritional components derived from dietary intake and microbial fermentation focusing on the consequent effects on the integrity of the epithelial barrier. © 2015 De Santis, Cavalcanti, Mastronardi, Jirillo and Chieppa.


Randall-Demllo S.,University of Tasmania | Chieppa M.,Laboratory of Experimental Immunopathology | Eri R.,University of Tasmania
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2013

One of the most significant challenges of cell biology is to understand how each type of cell copes with its specific workload without suffering damage. Among the most intriguing questions concerns intestinal epithelial cells in mammals; these cells act as a barrier between the internally protected region and the external environment that is exposed constantly to food and microbes. A major process involved in the processing of microbes is autophagy. In the intestine, through multiple, complex signaling pathways, autophagy including macroautophagy and xenophagy is pivotal in mounting appropriate intestinal immune responses and anti-microbial protection. Dysfunctional autophagy mechanism leads to chronic intestinal inflammation, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Studies involving a number of in vitro and in vivo mouse models in addition to human clinical studies have revealed a detailed role for autophagy in the generation of chronic intestinal inflammation. A number of genome-wide association studies identified roles for numerous autophagy genes in IBD, especially in Crohn's disease. In this review, we will explore in detail the latest research linking autophagy to intestinal homeostasis and how alterations in autophagy pathways lead to intestinal inflammation. © 2013 Randall-Demllo, Chieppa and Eri.


Eri R.,University of Tasmania | Chieppa M.,Laboratory of Experimental Immunopathology
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2013

An organism is defined as "an individual living thing capable of responding to stimuli, growing, reproducing, and maintaining homeostasis." Early during evolution multicellular organisms explored the advantages of a symbiotic life. Mammals harbor a complex aggregate of microorganisms (called microbiota) that includes bacteria, fungi, and archaea. Some of these bacteria have already defined beneficial roles for the human host that include the ability to break down nutrients that could not otherwise be digested, preventing the growth of harmful species, as well as the ability to produce vitamins or hormones. It is intuitive that along the evolutionary path several mechanisms favored bacteria that provided advantages to the host which, in return, avoided launching an aggressive immunological response against them. The intestinal immunological response does not ignore the lumenal content, on the contrary, immune surveillance is favored by continuous antigen sampling. Some intestinal epithelial cells (ECs) are crucial during the sampling process, others actively participate in the defense mechanism. In essence the epithelium acts as a traffic light, communicating to the inside world whether conditions are safe or dangerous, and thus influencing immunological response. In this review we will discuss the dynamic factors that act on the intestinal ECs and how they directly or indirectly influence immune cells during states of health and disease. © 2013 Eri and Chieppa.


PubMed | Laboratory of Experimental Immunopathology, CNR Institute of Neuroscience, Laboratory of Mucosal Immunology, University of Salento and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

Polyphenols are natural compounds capable of interfering with the inflammatory pathways of several in vitro model systems. In this study, we developed a stable and effective strategy to administer polyphenols to treat in vivo models of acute intestinal inflammation. The in vitro suppressive properties of several polyphenols were first tested and compared for dendritic cells (DCs) production of inflammatory cytokines. A combination of the polyphenols, quercetin and piperine, were then encapsulated into reconstituted oil bodies (OBs) in order to increase their stability. Our results showed that administration of low dose reconstituted polyphenol OBs inhibited LPS-mediated inflammatory cytokine secretion, including IL-6, IL-23, and IL-12, while increasing IL-10 and IL-1R production. Mice treated with the polyphenol-containing reconstituted OBs (ROBs) were partially protected from dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis and associated weight loss, while mortality and inflammatory scores revealed an overall anti-inflammatory effect that was likely mediated by impaired DC immune responses. Our study indicates that the administration of reconstituted quercetin and piperine-containing OBs may represent an effective and potent anti-inflammatory strategy to treat acute intestinal inflammation.


PubMed | Instituto Comprensivo Bregante Volta, IRCCS De Bellis, Laboratory of Experimental Immunopathology and University of Bari
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in immunology | Year: 2015

The intestinal tract represents the largest interface between the external environment and the human body. Nutrient uptake mostly happens in the intestinal tract, where the epithelial surface is constantly exposed to dietary antigens. Since inflammatory response toward these antigens may be deleterious for the host, a plethora of protective mechanisms take place to avoid or attenuate local damage. For instance, the intestinal barrier is able to elicit a dynamic response that either promotes or impairs luminal antigens adhesion and crossing. Regulation of intestinal barrier is crucial to control intestinal permeability whose increase is associated with chronic inflammatory conditions. The cross talk among bacteria, immune, and dietary factors is able to modulate the mucosal barrier function, as well as the intestinal permeability. Several nutritional products have recently been proposed as regulators of the epithelial barrier, even if their effects are in part contradictory. At the same time, the metabolic function of the microbiota generates new products with different effects based on the dietary content. Besides conventional treatments, novel therapies based on complementary nutrients are now growing. Fecal therapy has been recently used for the clinical treatment of refractory Clostridium difficile infection instead of the classical antibiotic therapy. In the present review, we will outline the epithelial response to nutritional components derived from dietary intake and microbial fermentation focusing on the consequent effects on the integrity of the epithelial barrier.

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